Essay World Peace Day

For the television series, see Million Dollar Extreme Presents: World Peace. For the basketball player, see Metta World Peace. For the non-profit Organization, see World Peace One.

World peace, or peace on Earth, is the concept of an ideal state of happiness, freedom and peace within and among all people and nations on earth. This idea of world non-violence is one motivation for people and nations to willingly cooperate, either voluntarily or by virtue of a system of governance that prevents warfare. Different cultures, religions, philosophies and organisations have varying concepts on how such a state would come about.

Various religious and secular organisations have the stated aim of achieving world peace through addressing human rights, technology, education, engineering, medicine or diplomacy used as an end to all forms of fighting. Since 1945, the United Nations and the 5 permanent members of its Security Council (the US, Russia, China, France and the UK) have operated under the aim to resolve conflicts without war or declarations of war. Nonetheless, nations have entered numerous military conflicts since then.

World peace theories[edit]

theories

Main article: Peace and conflict studies

Many theories as to how world peace could be achieved have been proposed. Several of these are listed below.

Peace through strength[edit]

Main article: Peace through strength

The term is traced back to the Roman Emperor Hadrian (reigned AD 117 – 138) but the concept is as old as the recorded history. The Egyptian god Ptah says that Ramses II's (1279–1213 BC) "strength" causes every country "to crave peace":

I have set for thee the might, victory and strength of thy mighty sword in every land ... I assign them to thy mighty sword ... I have thy terror in every heart ... I have set thy fear in every country, thy fear encircles the mountains, and the chiefs tremble at the mention of thee...; they come to thee, crying out together, to crave peace from thee.[1]

In 1943, at the peak of World War II, the founder of the Paneuropean Union, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, argued that after the War the United States is bound to take "command of the skies" to ensure the lasting world peace:

But the inauguration of such a glorious century of peace demands from us abandonment of old conceptions of peace. The new Angel of Peace must no longer be pictured as a charming but helpless lady with an olive branch in her hand, but like the Goddess of Justice with a balance in her left and a sword in her right; or like the Archangel Michael, with a fiery sword and wings of steel, fighting the devil to restore and protect the peace of heaven.[2]

In fact, near the entrance to the headquarters of the SAC at Offutt Air Base stands a large sign with a SAC emblem and its motto: "Peace is our profession."[3] The motto "was a staggering paradox that was also completely accurate."[4] One SAC Bomber—Convair B-36—is called Peacemaker and one inter-continental missile-LGM-118-Peacekeeper.

In 2016, former US Secretary of Defense Ash Carter envisaged that the rebalance to the Asia-Pacific will make the region "peaceful" through "strength":

You, and your fellow soldiers, sailors, airmen, and Marines will solidify the rebalance, you will make this network work, and you will help the Asia-Pacific ... realize a principled and peaceful and prosperous future. And play the role only America can play ... You'll do so with strength.[5]

Introduction to US National Security and Defense Strategies of 2018 states: The US force posture combined with the allies will "preserve peace through strength." The document proceeds to detail what "achieving peace through strength requires."[6]

Associated with peace through strength are concepts of preponderance of power (as opposed to balance of power), hegemonic stability theory, unipolar stability, and imperial peace (such as Pax Romana, Pax Britannica, or Pax Americana).

Various political ideologies[edit]

World peace is sometimes claimed to be the result of a certain political ideology.[7]Leon Trotsky, a Marxist theorist, assumed that a proletariat world revolution would lead to world peace.[8]

Democratic peace theory[edit]

Proponents of the controversial democratic peace theory claim that strong empirical evidence exists that democracies never or rarely wage war against each other.[9][10][11][12]

There are, however, several wars between democracies that have taken place, historically.

Capitalism peace theory[edit]

In her essay "The Roots of War", Ayn Rand held that the major wars of history were started by the more controlled economies of the time against the freer ones and that capitalism gave mankind the longest period of peace in history—a period during which there were no wars involving the entire civilized world—from the end of the Napoleonic wars in 1815 to the outbreak of World War I in 1914, with the exceptions of the Franco-Prussian War (1870), the Spanish–American War (1898), and the American Civil War (1861–1865), which notably occurred in perhaps the most liberal economy in the world at the beginning of the industrial revolution.

Cobdenism[edit]

Proponents of Cobdenism claim that by removing tariffs and creating international free trade wars would become impossible, because free trade prevents a nation from becoming self-sufficient, which is a requirement for long wars.

However, free trade does not prevent a nation from establishing some sort of emergency plan to become temporarily self-sufficient in case of war or that a nation could simply acquire what it needs from a different nation. A good example of this is World War I, during which both Britain and Germany became partially self-sufficient. This is particularly important because Germany had no plan for creating a war economy.

More generally, free trade—while not making wars impossible—can make wars, and restrictions on trade caused by wars, very costly for international companies with production, research, and sales in many different nations. Thus, a powerful lobby—unless there are only national companies—will argue against wars.

Mutual assured destruction[edit]

Mutual assured destruction is a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both belligerents.[13][14] Proponents of the policy of mutual assured destruction during the Cold War attributed this to the increase in the lethality of war to the point where it no longer offers the possibility of a net gain for either side, thereby making wars pointless.

United Nations Charter and International law[edit]

After World War II, the United Nations was established by the United Nations Charter to "save successive generations from the scourge of war which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind" (Preamble). The Preamble to the United Nations Charter also aims to further the adoption of fundamental human rights, to respect obligations to sources of international law as well as to unite the strength of independent countries in order to maintain international peace and security. All treaties on international human rights law make reference to or consider "the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and "peace in the world".

Globalization[edit]

Gordon B. Hinckley saw a trend in national politics by which city-states and nation-states have unified and suggests that the international arena will eventually follow suit. Many countries such as China, Italy, the United States, Australia, Germany, India and Britain have unified into single nation-states with others like the European Union following suit, suggesting that further globalization will bring about a world state.

Isolationism and non-interventionism[edit]

Proponents of isolationism and non-interventionism claim that a world made up of many nations can peacefully coexist as long as they each establish a stronger focus on domestic affairs and do not try to impose their will on other nations.

Non-interventionism should not be confused with isolationism. Isolationism, like non-interventionism, advises avoiding interference into other nation's internal affairs but also emphasizes protectionism and restriction of international trade and travel. Non-interventionism, on the other hand, advocates combining free trade (like Cobdenism) with political and military non-interference.

Nations like Japan are perhaps the best known for establishing isolationist policies in the past. The Japanese ShogunTokugawa initiated the Edo Period, an isolationist period where Japan cut itself off from the world as a whole.

Self-organized peace[edit]

World peace has been depicted as a consequence of local, self-determined behaviors that inhibit the institutionalization of power and ensuing violence. The solution is not so much based on an agreed agenda, or an investment in higher authority whether divine or political, but rather a self-organized network of mutually supportive mechanisms, resulting in a viable politico-economic social fabric. The principal technique for inducing convergence is thought experiment, namely backcasting, enabling anyone to participate no matter what cultural background, religious doctrine, political affiliation or age demographic. Similar collaborative mechanisms are emerging from the Internet around open-source projects, including Wikipedia, and the evolution of other social media.

Economic norms theory[edit]

Economic norms theory links economic conditions with institutions of governance and conflict, distinguishing personal clientelist economies from impersonal market-oriented ones, identifying the latter with permanent peace within and between nations.[15][16]

Through most of human history societies have been based on personal relations: individuals in groups know each other and exchange favors. Today in most lower-income societies hierarchies of groups distribute wealth based on personal relationships among group leaders, a process often linked with clientelism and corruption. Michael Mousseau argues that in this kind of socio-economy conflict is always present, latent or overt, because individuals depend on their groups for physical and economic security and are thus loyal to their groups rather than their states, and because groups are in a constant state of conflict over access to state coffers. Through processes of bounded rationality, people are conditioned towards strong in-group identities and are easily swayed to fear outsiders, psychological predispositions that make possible sectarian violence, genocide, and terrorism.[17]

Market-oriented socio-economies are integrated not with personal ties but the impersonal force of the market where most individuals are economically dependent on trusting strangers in contracts enforced by the state. This creates loyalty to a state that enforces the rule of law and contracts impartially and reliably and provides equal protection in the freedom to contract – that is, liberal democracy. Wars cannot happen within or between nations with market-integrated economies because war requires the harming of others, and in these kinds of economies everyone is always economically better off when others in the market are also better off, not worse off. Rather than fight, citizens in market-oriented socio-economies care deeply about everyone's rights and welfare, so they demand economic growth at home and economic cooperation and human rights abroad. In fact, nations with market-oriented socio-economies tend to agree on global issues[17] and not a single fatality has occurred in any dispute between them.[15]

Economic norms theory should not be confused with classical liberal theory. The latter assumes that markets are natural and that freer markets promote wealth.[18] In contrast, Economic norms theory shows how market-contracting is a learned norm, and state spending, regulation, and redistribution are necessary to ensure that almost everyone can participate in the "social market" economy, which is in everyone's interests. One proposed mechanism for world peace involves consumer purchasing of renewable and equitable local food and power sources involving artificial photosynthesis ushering in a period of social and ecological harmony known as the Sustainocene.

International Day of Peace[edit]

The International Day of Peace, sometimes unofficially known as World Peace Day, is observed annually on 21 September. It is dedicated to peace, and specifically the absence of war and violence, such as might be occasioned by a temporary ceasefire in a combat zone for humanitarian aid access. The day was first celebrated in 1982, and is kept by many nations, political groups, military groups, and peoples. In 2013, for the first time, the Day has been dedicated to peace education, i.e. by the key preventive means to reduce war sustainably.

Religious views[edit]

Many religions and religious leaders have expressed a desire for an end to violence.

Bahá'í Faith[edit]

Main article: Bahá'í Faith and the unity of humanity

The central aim of the Bahá'í Faith is the establishment of the unity of the peoples of the world. Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, stated in no uncertain terms, "the fundamental purpose animating the Faith of God and His Religion is to safeguard the interests and promote the unity of the human race ..." In His writings, Bahá'u'lláh described two distinct stages of world peace – a lesser peace and a most great peace.

The lesser peace is essentially a collective security agreement between the nations of the world. In this arrangement, nations agree to protect one another by rising up against an aggressor nation, should it seek the usurpation of territory or the destruction of its neighbors. The lesser peace is limited in scope and is concerned with the establishment of basic order and the universal recognition of national borders and the sovereignty of nations. Bahá'ís believe that the lesser peace is taking place largely through the operation of the Divine Will, and that Bahá'í influence on the process is relatively minor.

The most great peace is the eventual end goal of the lesser peace and is envisioned as a time of spiritual and social unity – a time when the peoples of the world genuinely identify with and care for one another, rather than simply tolerating one other's existence. The Bahá'ís view this process as taking place largely as a result of the spread of Bahá'í teachings, principles and practices throughout the world. The larger world peace process and its foundational elements are addressed in the document The Promise of World Peace, written by the Universal House of Justice.[22]

Buddhism[edit]

Main article: Buddhism

Many Buddhists believe that world peace can only be achieved if we first establish peace within our minds. The idea is that anger and other negative states of mind are the cause of wars and fighting. Buddhists believe people can live in peace and harmony only if we abandon negative emotions such as anger in our minds and cultivate positive emotions such as love and compassion. As with all Dharmic religions (Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism), ahimsa (avoidance of violence) is a central concept.

Peace pagodas are monuments that are built to symbolize and inspire world peace and have been central to the peace movement throughout the years. These are typically of Buddhist origin, being built by the Japanese Buddhist organisation Nipponzan Myohoji. They exist around the world in cities such as London, Vienna, New Delhi, Tokyo and Lumbini.

Christianity[edit]

Main article: Christian pacifism

The basic Christian ideal specifies that peace can only come by the Word and love of God, which is perfectly demonstrated in the life of Christ:

"Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid."

— John 14:27

As christologically interpreted from Isaiah 2, whereupon the "Word of the Lord" is established on the earth, the material human-political result will be 'nation not taking up sword against nation; nor will they train for war anymore'. Christian world peace necessitates the living of a proactive life replete with all good works in direct light of the Word of God. The details of such a life can be observed in the Gospels, especially the historically renowned Sermon on the Mount, where forgiving those who do wrong things against oneself is advocated among other pious precepts.

However, not all Christians expect a lasting world peace on this earth:

"Do not suppose that I have come to bring peace to the earth. I did not come to bring peace, but a sword. For I have come to turn a man against his father, a daughter against her mother, a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law—a man's enemies will be the members of his own household."

— Matt 10:34–36

Many Christians believe that world peace is expected to be manifest upon the "new earth" that is promised in Christian scripture such as Revelation 21.

The Roman Catholic religious conception of "Consecration of Russia", related to the Church's high-priority FátimaMarian apparitions, promises world peace as a result of this process being fulfilled.

Hinduism[edit]

Main article: Hinduism

Traditionally, Hinduism has adopted an ancient Sanskrit phrase Vasudha eka kutumbakam,[23] which translates as "The world is one family." The essence of this concept is the observation that only base minds see dichotomies and divisions. The more we seek wisdom, the more we become inclusive and free our internal spirit from worldly illusions or Maya. World peace is hence only achieved through internal means—by liberating ourselves from artificial boundaries that separate us all. As with all Dharmic religions (Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism), ahimsa (avoidance of violence) is a central concept.

Islam[edit]

Main article: Islamic Peace

According to Islamic eschatology, the whole world will be united under the leadership of prophet Isa in his second coming.[24] At that time love, justice and peace will be so abundant that the world will be in likeness of paradise.

Judaism[edit]

Main article: Judaism

The concept of Tikkun olam (Repairing the World) is central to modern Rabbinic Judaism. Tikkun olam is accomplished through various means, such as ritualistically performing God's commandments, charity and social justice, as well as through example persuading the rest of the world to behave morally. According to some views, Tikkun Olam would result in the beginning of the Messianic Age. It has been said that in every generation, a person is born with the potential to be the spiritual Messiah. If the time is right for the Messianic Age within that person's lifetime, then that person will be the mashiach. But if that person dies before he completes the mission of the Messiah, then that person is not the Messiah (Mashiach).[25]

Specifically, in Jewish messianism it is considered that at some future time a Messiah (literally "a King appointed by God") will rise up to bring all Jews back to the Land of Israel, followed by everlasting global peace and prosperity.[26] This idea originates from passages in the Old Testament and the Talmud.

And he shall judge between the nations and reprove many peoples, and they shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift the sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore.

— Isaiah 2:4

Jainism[edit]

Main article: Jainism

Compassion for all life, human and non-human, is central to Jainism.They have adopted the wordings of Lord Mahvira Jiyo aur Jeeno Do Human life is valued as a unique, rare opportunity to reach enlightenment; to kill any person, no matter what crime he may have committed, is considered unimaginably abhorrent. It is a religion that requires monks and laity, from all its sects and traditions, to be vegetarian. Some Indian regions, such as Gujarat, have been strongly influenced by Jains and often the majority of the local Hindus of every denomination have also become vegetarian.[27] Famous quote on world peace as per Jainism by a 19th-century Indian legend, Virchand Gandhi: "May peace rule the universe; may peace rule in kingdoms and empires; may peace rule in states and in the lands of the potentates; may peace rule in the house of friends and may peace also rule in the house of enemies."[28] As with all Dharmic religions (Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism), ahimsa (avoidance of violence) is a central concept.

Sikhism[edit]

Main article: Sikhism

Peace comes from God. Meditation, the means of communicating with God, is unfruitful without the noble character of a devotee, there can be no worship without performing good deeds.[29] Guru Nanak stressed now kirat karō: that a Sikh should balance work, worship, and charity, and should defend the rights of all creatures, and in particular, fellow human beings. They are encouraged to have a chaṛdī kalā, or optimisticresilience, view of life. Sikh teachings also stress the concept of sharing—vaṇḍ chakkō—through the distribution of free food at Sikh gurdwaras (laṅgar), giving charitable donations, and working for the good of the community and others (sēvā). Sikhs believe that no matter what race, sex, or religion one is, all are equal in God's eyes. Men and women are equal and share the same rights, and women can lead in prayers. As with all Dharmic religions (Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism), ahimsa (avoidance of violence) is a central concept.

Economic implications[edit]

A report in June 2015 on the Global Peace Index highlighted that the impact of violence on the global economy reached US$14.3 trillion.[30] The report also found that the economic cost of violence is 13.4% of world GDP, equal to the total economic output of Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Spain and the UK combined.[31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

A long-standing suggestion for World Peace Meditation,[19] along with annual purposeful devotional dates,[20] as faithfully performed by a fraternal organization whose founder taught, in the 1910s, that "Peace is a matter of education, and impossible of achievement until we have learned to deal charitably, justly, and openly with one another, as nations as well as individuals."[21]
  1. ^Ancient Records of Egypt. Historical Documents from the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest, (ed. James Henry Breasted, London: Nabu Press, 1988), vol III:408, p 179-180.
  2. ^Crusade for Pan-Europe, (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1943), p 299, 305.
  3. ^Cited in Thomas S. Power, Design for Survival, (New York: Coward McCann, 1964), p 139.
  4. ^Phillip S. Meilinger, Bomber: The Formation and Early History of Strategic Air Command, (Alabama: Air University Press, 2012), p XVIII.
  5. ^"The Future of the Rebalance: Enabling Security in the Vital & Dynamic Asia-Pacific," (Secretary of Defense Speech, September 29, 2016, Washington: Department of Defense), https://www.defense.gov/News/Speeches/Speech-View/Article/959937/remarks-on-the-future-of-the-rebalance-enabling-security-in-the-vital-dynamic-a?source=GovDelivery
  6. ^US National Secusrity and Defense Strategies, (Washington: Department of Defense, 2018), p 1, 6, https://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/pubs/2018-National-Defense-Strategy-Summary.pdf
  7. ^"President Meets with Bulgarian President Georgi Purvanov", George W Business love rainbows, Washington, DC, USA: White House archives, 17 October 2005 .
  8. ^Trotsky, Leon (1914), War and the International, Marxists .
  9. ^"Ray", International relations, USA: M Tholyoke, archived from the original on 17 February 2008 .
  10. ^Smith, "Democracy & peace", Politics(PDF), USA: New York University .
  11. ^Müller, Harald and Jonas Wolff (September 2004). "Dyadic Democratic Peace Strikes Back". 5th Pan-European International Relations ConferenceThe Hague. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  12. ^Owen, John M, IV (1 November 2005), "Fareview essay", ForeignAffairs.org, "Iraq and the democratic peace", archived from the original on 21 December 2005 .
  13. ^"Mutual Assured Destruction", Strategy, Nuclear files .
  14. ^Parrington, Col. Alan J (Winter 1997), "Mutually Assured Destruction Revisited, Strategic Doctrine in Question", Airpower Journal, USA: Air Force .
  15. ^ abMousseau, Michael (Spring 2009), "The Social Market Roots of Democratic Peace", International Security, 33 (4), pp. 52–86 .
  16. ^———————— (Winter 2002–2003), "Market Civilization and its Clash with Terror", International Security, 27 (3), pp. 5–29 .
  17. ^ ab———————— (2003), "The Nexus of Market Society, Liberal Preferences, and Democratic Peace: Interdisciplinary Theory and Evidence", International Studies Quarterly, 47 (4): 483–510, doi:10.1046/j.0020-8833.2003.00276.x .
  18. ^Friedman, Milton. 1970. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago : University of Chicago.
  19. ^Suggestion For World Peace Meditation. Mount Ecclesia, CA, USA
  20. ^World Peace Meditation: 2017 Devotional Services Dates and Times. Mount Ecclesia, CA, USA
  21. ^Heindel, Max. Letters to Students: LETTER NO. 92, July 1918. TRF, CA, USA (various editions/publishers)
  22. ^Smith, P. (1999). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. pp. 363–364. ISBN 1-85168-184-1. 
  23. ^"Dharmic Wisdom Quotes – Page 3". 
  24. ^Bukhari, Kitab Ahadith al-Ambiya; Bab: Nuzul 'Isa Ibn Maryam; Muslim, Bab: Bayan Nuzul 'Isa; Tirmidhi, Abwab-al-Fitan; Bab Fi Nuzul 'Isa; Musnad Ahmad, Marwiyat Abu Huraira.http://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/Books/M_fop/fop11.htm
  25. ^"Judaism 101: Mashiach: The Messiah". 
  26. ^Rambam, Mishneh Torah, Hilkhot Melachim, ch. 11–12
  27. ^Titze, Kurt, Jainism: A Pictorial Guide to the Religion of Non-Violence, Mohtilal Banarsidass, 1998
  28. ^Useful instructions, In Matter religious, moral and others by Motilal M. Munishi, 1904
  29. ^Wood, Angela (1997). Movement and Change. Nelson Thornes. p. 46. ISBN 9780174370673. 
  30. ^"Global conflicts 'cost 13% of world GDP'". BBC News. 
  31. ^Mark Anderson. "Global cost of conflict reaches $14.3tn, says report". the Guardian. 

Not to be confused with World Day of Peace.

International Day of Peace
Observed byAll UN Member States
TypeUnited Nations International Declaration
CelebrationsMultiple world wide events
Date21 September
Next time21 September 2018 (2018-09-21)
FrequencyAnnual
Related toPeace Movement

The International Day of Peace, sometimes unofficially known as World Peace Day, is a holiday observed annually on 21 September. It is dedicated to world peace, and specifically the absence of war and violence, such as might be occasioned by a temporary ceasefire in a combat zone for humanitarian aid access. The day was first celebrated in 1982, and is kept by many nations, political groups, military groups, and people. In 2013 the day was dedicated by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to peace education, the key preventive means to reduce war sustainably.[1]

To inaugurate the day, the United Nations Peace Bell is rung at UN Headquarters (in New York City). The bell is cast from coins donated by children from all continents except Africa, and was a gift from the United Nations Association of Japan, as "a reminder of the human cost of war"; the inscription on its side reads, "Long live absolute world peace".[2]

History[edit]

1981 – UN General Assembly Resolution passed[edit]

The United Nations General Assembly declared, in a resolution sponsored by the United Kingdom and Costa Rica,[3] the International Day of Peace, to be devoted to commemorating and strengthening the ideals of peace.[4] The date initially chosen was the regular opening day of the annual sessions of the General Assembly, the third Tuesday of September. (This was changed in 2001 to the current annual celebration on 21 September each year — see 2001 below.)

1982 – First observance[edit]

Tuesday 21 September 1982 was the first occurrence of the International Day of Peace. The theme of the first International Day of Peace was the Right to peace of people.

1983 – Culture of Peace initiative[edit]

In the spirit of the original vision that brought forth the Charter of the United Nations, the UN Secretary General announces a Culture of Peace in the 21st century initiative to unite the strengths of organizations, projects and peoples in order to make Peace a practical reality for the children of this and future generations.[5]

1996 – Seanad Éireann debate[edit]

A proposal for expanding the International Day of Peace to include Reconciliation, in which a massive number of emblems (White Doves) would be distributed after a formal presentation at the United Nations, was put forward by Vincent Coyle, of Derry, Northern Ireland, and was debated at Seanad Éireann. It was accepted that it would be impractical for one member state to ask for a particular slot at a general UN ceremony.[6] However, events have been held at the United Nations in New York, with the support of Kofi Annan, in April.

2001 – Date set at 21 September[edit]

In 2001 the opening day of the General Assembly was scheduled for 11 September, and Secretary General Kofi Annan drafted a message recognising the observance of International Peace Day on 21 September.[7] That year the day was changed from the third Tuesday to specifically the twenty-first day of September, to take effect in 2002. A new resolution was passed by the General Assembly,[3] sponsored by the United Kingdom (giving credit to Peace One Day) and Costa Rica (the original sponsors of the day), to give the International Day of Peace a fixed calendar date, 21 September, and declare it also as a day of global ceasefire and non-violence.[8]

2004 – Taiwanese commemorative stamp controversy[edit]

A diplomatic stir occurred when Lions Clubs International sponsored a competition for six posters to be used for International Day of Peace commemorative stamps issued by the UN Postal Administration. A poster by 15-year-old Taiwanese school student Yang Chih-Yuan was announced as one of the winners, but the announcement was withdrawn. Taiwan media reports, Taiwan Lions Club and the government of Taiwan claimed the decision not to use the poster resulted from pressure from China;[9] the rejection of the student's painting on political grounds did not reflect the ideals of the International Day of Peace.[10] The UN issued a statement that, although in the short list of eight designs, "due to an internal misunderstanding and miscommunication, Mr. Yang's proof got publicized in error as one of the six stamps intended to be issued."[9] The government of Taiwan (Republic of China) later issued a stamp containing the image.[11]

2005 – UN Secretary General calls for 22-hour ceasefire[edit]

In 2005, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan called for the worldwide observance of a 22-hour cease-fire and day of nonviolence to mark the Day.[12]

Global survey of celebration[edit]

The Culture of Peace Initiative published an annual report for the International Day of Peace in 2005 describing events in 46 countries:[13] Africa 11; East Asia and Pacific 12; Latin America and Caribbean 4; Europe 14; Middle East 3; North America 2 (22 states, provinces).

2006 – Peace Parade, UK[edit]

In 2006, then Secretary-General Kofi Annan rang the Peace Bell for the last time during his Term in office. That year the UN asserted the "many ways it works for peace and to encourage individuals, Groups and communities around the world to contemplate and communicate thoughts and activities on how to achieve peace." The United Kingdom held the primary public and official observation of the United Nations International Day of Peace and Non-Violence in Rochdale, Greater Manchester. This was organized by Peace Parade UK.[14][15]

2007 – UN Secretary General calls for worldwide moment of silence[edit]

In 2007, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon rang the Peace Bell at United Nations Headquarters in New York calling for a 24-hour cessation of hostilities on 21 September, and for a minute of silence to be observed around the world.[16]

2009 – International Year of Reconciliation announced[edit]

In 2009 – International Year of Reconciliation – the day was marked by a massive number of white doves being distributed after a formal presentation at the United Nations, bearing in mind the Charter of the United Nations, including the purposes and principles contained therein, and in particular those of saving succeeding generations from the scourge of war, bringing about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace, and practising tolerance and living together in peace with one another as good neighbours, thus developing friendly relations among nations and promoting international cooperation to resolve international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian issues. Vincent Coyle of Derry, Northern Ireland gave his full support.[17]

Global survey of celebration[edit]

The Culture of Peace Initiative published an annual report for the International Day of Peace in 2009 describing events in 77 countries:[18] Africa 14; East Asia and Pacific 20; Latin America and Caribbean 11; Europe 23; Middle East 7; North America 2 countries (48 states, provinces).

2011 – Peace and Democracy: Make Your Voice Heard[edit]

In 2011 the UN Peace Day's theme was "Peace and Democracy: Make Your Voice Heard". Many organizations held Peace Day events worldwide in 2011. There were school activities, music concerts, global comedy clubs (www.thinkPEACE.net), peace doves, prayer vigils, peace conferences, and UN activities. Organizations like Peace One Day, Wiser and Culture of Peace have been active participants in Peace Day activities for years.

2012 – Sustainable Peace for a Sustainable Future[edit]

The United Nations set the theme for this year's observance as Sustainable Peace for a Sustainable Future, commemorating and strengthening the ideals of peace both within and among all nations and peoples.[19]

Global Truce Day 2012[edit]

In 2011, Peace One Day announced at their O2 Arena concert, a new international campaign called Global Truce 2012, a grassroots initiative and international coalition with non-governmental organisations and Students' unions in every continent, which increased participation and action on Peace Day 2012, the day of Global Truce. Particular focus in this campaign included a cessation of hostilities on the day and a reduction of domestic violence and bullying in society. The Peace One Day Celebration concert on Peace Day in 2012 was held at Wembley Arena to celebrate Global Truce 2012.[20] The Global Truce campaign will continue and be named with each year it leads up to, involving more partners and coalitions for mass participation and life-saving practical action on Peace Day.

2013 – Focus on Peace education[edit]

UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon has dedicated the World Peace Day 2013 to Peace education in an effort to refocus minds and financing on the preeminence of peace education as the means to bring about a culture of peace.[21] Animator and children's book author, Sue DiCicco announced in May 2013[22] a global campaign to increase awareness of Peace Day and promote peace education within schools and community groups through the Peace Crane Project.[23]Gorey Community School in Co. Wexford, Ireland, has been chosen to be School of Peace for 2013.

Global Truce 2013[edit]

Peace One Day launched a new theme for Global Truce 2013: Who Will You Make Peace With?

Peace Day Comedy 2013[edit]

To bring awareness to Peace Day, thinkPEACE promoted a Peace Day Comedy program, "Stand-Up For International Peace," held in over 50 global comedy clubs in 2013.[24]

2014 – Right to Peace[edit]

The theme of the 2014 International Day of Peace is the Right of Peoples to Peace, reaffirming the United Nations commitment to the UN Declaration on the Right of Peoples to Peace,[25] which recognizes that the promotion of peace is vital for the full enjoyment of all human rights.[26]

2014 Peace Day Comedy program[edit]

To bring awareness to Peace Day 2014, the thinkPEACE Network will promote a Peace Day Comedy program, "Stand-Up For International Peace," to be held in over 50 global comedy clubs.[27]

Waves Of Kindness global meditation events[edit]

The Waves Of Kindness Global Initiative celebrates the United Nations International Day Of Peace though global meditation events.[28]

[edit]

Director of UNESCO to Vietnam, Katherine Müller, said in Global Education Magazine: "I personally identify with UNESCO’s values in the sense that I truly believe Education, Culture, Social and Natural Sciences, and Communication and Information are some of the most powerful drivers for sustainable development and peace, as a sustainable future cannot exist without sustainable peace. Raising awareness, capacity building, promoting understanding and respect for diversity, and fostering opportunities for interaction to find ways to ensure a culture of peace are all actions that will motivate people to become interested in setting peace as a priority for sustainable development.[29]"

2015 – Partnerships for Peace – Dignity for All[edit]

The theme of the 2015 International Day of Peace was "Partnerships for Peace – Dignity for All".[30]

2016 – The Sustainable Development Goals: Building Blocks for Peace[edit]

The theme of the 2016 International Day of Peace was "The Sustainable Development Goals: Building Blocks for Peace".[31]

2017 – Together for Peace: Respect, Safety and Dignity for All[edit]

This theme is based on the TOGETHER global campaign that promotes respect, safety and dignity for everyone forced to flee their homes in search of a better life.[32]

The Peace Crane Project[edit]

In 2017, The Peace Crane Project announced the goal of collecting 1,000 cranes from students around the world to display in various venues to celebrate.[33][34]

2017 Global survey of celebration[edit]

A survey by the Culture of Peace News Network found internet reports about 562 celebrations of the International Day of Peace from 127 countries around the world this year.[35] These included 128 events coming from most of the provinces and states in Canada and the USA. Next were the countries formerly part of the Soviet Union with 104. There were 96 events cited in 27 European countries, 81 from 29 African countries, 67 from 20 Asian countries, 58 from 16 Latin American and Caribbean countries, and 28 from 21 Arab and Middle Eastern countries.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"International Day of Peace Event Information". Secretary-General of the United Nations. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  2. ^"Secretary-General's Message on the International Day of Peace 21 September 2002". Retrieved 2008-01-06. 
  3. ^ abUnited Nations General Assembly Session 55 Resolution282. International Day of PeaceA/RES/55/282 7 September 2001. Retrieved 2008-08-23.
  4. ^United Nations General Assembly Session 36 Resolution67. International Year of Peace and International Day of PeaceA/RES/36/67 page 1. 30 November 1981. Retrieved 2008-08-23.
  5. ^"About the Culture of Peace Initiative". CPI. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  6. ^Seanad Éireann — Volume 148 26 July 1996 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 September 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2012. 
  7. ^MESSAGE FROM SECRETARY-GENERAL ON INTERNATIONAL DAY OF PEACE
  8. ^United Nations General Assembly Session 55 Verbotim Report111. A/55/PV.111 page 2. Sir Jeremy GreenstockUnited Kingdom 7 September 2001. Retrieved 2008-08-23.
  9. ^ abTaipei Times Row erupts over local boy's stamp design
  10. ^Taipei Times Chunghwa Post announces intent to use student art
  11. ^Office of the President, Republic of China News Release: President Chen Receives the Painter of International Day of Peace Stamp Yang Chih-yuan
  12. ^"International Day of Peace 2005". Retrieved 2008-01-06. 
  13. ^https://web.archive.org/web/20061023162445/http://www.cultureofpeace.org:80/docs/WPIReport2005.pdf celebration of the International Day of Peace
  14. ^"Peace Parade UK". Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2013. 
  15. ^"International Day of Peace 2006". Retrieved 2008-01-06. 
  16. ^"International Day of Peace 2007". Retrieved 2008-01-06. 
  17. ^SER (Subjective Experience and Reason) Foundation – UN Documents: 2009, International Year of Reconciliation Accessed 9 October 2017
  18. ^https://web.archive.org/web/20110725213814/http://cultureofpeace.org/img/peacebuilding_tools/CPIReport2009.pdf 2009 celebration of the International Day of Peace
  19. ^"International Day of Peace 2012". Universal Peace Federation. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  20. ^"Sir Elton John to play for peace day". Retrieved 22 July 2012. 
  21. ^Peace Day 2013 Countdown
  22. ^Armed with the Arts Announcement
  23. ^Peace Crane Project
  24. ^"International Peace Day". ThinkPEACE. 
  25. ^"Declaration on the Right of Peoples to Peace". Approved by General Assembly resolution 39/11 of 12 November 1984. Office of the United Nations High Commission for Human Rights (OHCHR). 12 November 1984. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  26. ^"International Day of Peace 2014". United Nations. 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  27. ^"International Day of Peace events". thinkPEACE Network. Retrieved 16 September 2014. 
  28. ^"A unique and wonderful phenomena is gaining momentum worldwide". Waves of Kindness. Retrieved 16 September 2014. 
  29. ^Interview with Dr. Katherine Müller-Marin, Representative of UNESCO to VietNam in Global Education Magazine
  30. ^2015 International Day of Peace at un.org Accessed 1 October 2017
  31. ^"UN International Day of Peace 2016", Retrieved on 1 October 2017
  32. ^"The 2017 U.N. Peace Day Theme: Together for Peace: Respect, Safety and Dignity for All"; internationaldayofpeace.org/about Accessed 1 October 2017
  33. ^The Peace Crane Project, at us4.campaign-archive1.com Accessed 1 October 2017
  34. ^Director, Sarah Cowley, speaking about the Peace Crane Project at the United Nations, etc. in Peace Crane Project Campaign e-mail, September 2017, at us4.campaign-archive1.com Accessed 30 October 2017
  35. ^celebration of the International Day of Peace around the world this year

External links[edit]

Painting by children, International Peace Day 2009, Geneva.
March of Peace in Moscow, Protests in Moscow against the war with Ukraine. September 21, 2014.
The concert of INTERNATIONAL DAY OF PEACE at Amsterdam's Ziggo Dome. 21 Sep. 2014 (organized by MasterPeace)
International Peace Day ceremony, organised by Ekta Parishad, Gandhi Bhawan, Bhopal, India, September 2014

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