Sample Assignment Harvard Referencing Method

Harvard is a commonly used method of referencing, which uses the Author-Date system.


Which Harvard style?

Note: Harvard has been adapted to suit many different publication styles. The style used in this guide follows the standard prescribed by the following manual:
Snooks & Co. 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn. John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld.This is the official style followed in most Australian Government publications.


Which style does my Faculty or School use?

Some Schools require a different style from the one outlined here. Use the citation style  required by your Faculty or School.


Why Reference your sources?

It is important to reference the sources you use for essays and reports, so that the reader can follow your arguments and check your sources.  It is essential to correctly acknowledge the author when quoting or using other people’s ideas in your work.


How do I use Harvard?



  1. In-text citations are made like this


Paraphrasing and in-text citations

The point made by an analytic philosopher (O'Connor 1969, p. 32) is that values cannot be justified in this way. However Kneller (1963b, p. 102) insists that the theorist will inevitably be involved in value claims. 


Note: Page, chapter or section numbers may be included in the in-text citation if the cited work is long and the information helps the reader locate the relevant information.

When the authors name is mentioned in-text (eg. Kneller in the example above) add year and page numbers only to the in-text reference.

Entries that have the same author and year are noted by adding a, b, c etc to the year, both in-text eg. Kneller (1963b, p. 102) and in the Reference List (see entries in Reference List below).


Direct quotes and in-text citations 

‘Having a solid plan as part of research design is essential’ (Hatch 2002, p. 46).
Hatch (2002, p. 46) believes ‘having a solid plan as part of research design is essential.’


 Note: Always include page numbers when citing a quotation and enclose the quote in single quotation marks.


Block quotes and in-text citations


Inductive analysis is discussed:
            Inductive thinking proceeds from the specific to the general.  Understandings are generated by starting with specfic
          elements and finding connections among them.  To argue inductively is to begin with particular pieces of evidence,
          then pull them together into a meaningful whole.  Inductive data analysis is a search for patterns of meaningful data so
          the general statements about phenomena under investigation can be made (Hatch 2002, p. 161).

 Note: Place a quotation of 30 or more words in your work as a free standing block.  These quotes are usually indented eg. 5 spaces and are in a smaller font eg. 1 pt smaller than the surrounding text.  Do not enclose the quote in quotation marks.


  1. Reference lists, at the end of your paper, are made like this (arrange your list alphabetically by author).

Hatch, JA 2002, Doing qualitative research in education settings. State of , .

Kneller, JP 1963a, Is logical thinking logical? Ponsonby & Partridge, Dubbo.

-----1963b, ‘Thinking and logical interaction’, Brain Logic, vol. 257, no. 4, pp. 54-62.

O'Connor, DJ 1969, An introduction to the philosophy of education, Routledge & Kegan Paul, .

[See the sample Reference list].

This page provides information from the NTNU University Library to help you when you need to use the Harvard style.

Norsk versjon: Bruke referansestilen Harvard

See also "Academic Writing" and Using and citing sources

The Harvard style #

Are you writing a paper for which you need help on using the Harvard style?

The Harvard style is used in the social sciences, technology and natural sciences. Check which reference style your department recommends before you begin writing your paper.

Other styles

  • APA style is used in the social sciences, arts and humanities.
  • Chicago style is used in the social sciences, arts and humanities.
  • Vancouver style is used in medicine and natural science, and sometimes in technology.

Examples of using the Harvard style in a reference list #


The examples show how to write references in-text and in reference lists based on what kind of source you are citing.

Harvard style in English for EndNote #

If you are using EndNote to manage your references, the default Harvard style in EndNote has author names in uppercase (e.g. ARMSTRONG). The NTNU University Library has made its own English NTNU Harvard style in lowercase (e.g. Armstrong).

Download the NTNU Harvard style

Reference list in Harvard style #

When writing a reference list in Harvard style:

  • Arrange the list alphabetically by author’s surname
  • Sort the Swedish letters ä - ö - å like you sort the Norwegian letters æ - ø - å
  • Start the reference list on a new page. Use “Reference list” or “Literature list” as the heading.
  • Include the edition if it is specified in the publication. You need not add the date of printing if this is just a reprint of the current edition. If it is the first edition, do not write the edition.
  • If a reference has more than 3 authors, only write the first author’s surname followed by “et al.

Personal communication in Harvard style #

In the Harvard style, personal communication should not be included in the reference list, if the information cannot be gathered again. Personal communications are conversations, e-mails, phone calls, etc. Remember to ask approval from the partner of the conversation before citing him/her. You

can cite personal communication in the text. You should include the name and title of your conversation partner, the date of communication and the context in which the communication took place.

The Harvard style in-text #

When using the Harvard style in-text, you must remember:

  • If a reference has more than 3 authors, only write the first author’s surname followed by “et al.
  • Multiple publications by the same author published the same year are distinguished by a, b, c etc. after the year: Hansen (1988a) and Hansen (1988b).
  • Multiple publications by different authors are sorted alphabetically by author’s surname. Example: (Hansen, 1988a; Olsen, 2001)
  • When a work has no identifiable author, use the title. Example: (Et enklere og mer rettferdig inntektssystem, 1996)
  • When a work has no identifiable release date, use no date. Example: (Trondheim kunstmuseum, no date). 
  • When using secondary sources, name your source and cite the secondary reference. Example: Johnson and Peters’ studies (1970, as cited in Wagner 1982)…
  • Use page numbers when:
    • it is a direct quote
    • if you use ideas from a specific page/specific pages in a work

References #

Example: Researchers such as Warwick (1992), Taylor and Smith (1994) and King et al. (1997) found that…

Citations #

Direct citations shorter than 2-3 lines are integrated in the text and are clearly marked with quotes. Citations longer than 2-3 lines should be in a separate indented paragraph, without quotes.


  • Short citation: “Sitering vil si ordrett gjengivelse av andres arbeider. Da skal det være ordrett, og ikke misbrukt i forhold til den sammenheng sitatet brukes i” (Stene, 1999, p. 125).
  • The name of the author is integrated in the paragraph: Stene (1999, p. 125) defines citation as: “Sitering vil si ordrett gjengivelse av andres arbeider. Da skal det være ordrett, og ikke misbrukt i forhold til den sammenhengen sitatet brukes i”.
  • Source with many authors: “Ved direkte sitater skal henvisningen gi informasjon om forfatter, årstall og sidetall” (Furseth and Everett, 1997, p. 141).

Indirect citation - paraphrases #

A paraphrase is a reformulation of the original text.

Example: Furseth and Everett (1997) maintain that the primary reason behind the use of references and bibliographies is the ideal of research as a collective endeavour. Research should be verifiable, and those reading your work should be able to find those sources your material is based upon.

More on the Harvard style #

There is no official manual for the Harvard style. Information on how you write references in-text and in a reference list with the Harvard style is based on Pears and Shields (2016).

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2016) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 10th ed. London: Palgrave.

Contact #

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