Nephrotic syndrome (Nephrosis)
Nephrotic syndrome is a group of symptoms including protein in the urine(more than 3.5grams per day), low blood protein levels, high cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels,andswelling.
Autoimmune process leading to structural alteration of glomerular membrane that resultsin increased permeability to plasma proteins, particulary albumin.
Nephrotic syndrome is a disorder of the glomeruli (clusters of microscopic blood vesselsin the kidneys that have small pores through which blood is filtered) in which excessiveamounts of protein are excreted in the urine. This typically leads to accumulation of fluidin the body (edema) and low levels of the protein albumin and high levels of fats in the blood.
Nephrotic syndrome is not a specific glomerular disease but a cluster of clinical findings,including:Marked increase in protein (particularly albumin) in the urine (proteinuria),Decrease in albumin in the blood (hypoalbuminemia), Edema, High serum cholesteroland low-density lipoproteins (hyperlipidemia).ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY:The organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry urine are theurinary system. The urinary system includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, two sphincter muscles, and the urethra.Your body takes nutrients from food and uses them to maintain all bodily functions includingenergy and self-repair. After your body has taken what it needs from the food, waste products areleft behind in the blood and in the bowel. The urinary system works with the lungs, skin, andintestines—all of which also excrete wastes—to keep the chemicals and water in your body balanced. Adults eliminate about a quart and a half of urine each day. The amount depends onmany factors, especially the amounts of fluid and food a person consumes and how much fluid islost through sweat and breathing. Certain types of medications can also affect the amount of urine eliminated.The urinary system removes a type of waste called urea from your blood. Urea is produced whenfoods containing protein, such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables, are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys.The kidneys are bean-shaped organs about the size of your fists. They are near the middle of the back, just below the rib cage. The kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filteringunits called nephrons. Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small blood capillaries, called aglomerulus, and a small tube called a renal tubule. Urea, together with water and other wastesubstances, forms the urine as it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of thekidney.
Nephrotic syndrome is a nonspecific disorder in which the
kidneys are damaged causing them to leak large amounts of
( . .
protein proteinuria at least 3 5 grams per day per 1 73m
body surface area from the blood into the urine Other
symptoms include hypoalbuminemia decrease in albumin in
), , (
the blood edema hypercholesterolemia high serum
cholesterol and normal renal function
The most common sign is excess fluid in the body This may
take several forms
o Puffiness around the eyes characteristically in
o Edema over the legs which is pitting i e leaves a
little pit when the fluid is pressed out which resolves
over a few seconds
o Fluid in the pleural cavity causing pleural
effusion More commonly associated with excess fluid is
o Fluid in the peritoneal cavity causing ascites