HORWOOD, VICTOR WILLIAM, architect, author, office holder, militia officer, and gentleman farmer; b. 27 Feb. 1874 in Frome, England, son of Harry Horwood and Ellen Mary Long; m. 18 Sept. 1906 Claratina Taylor in Winnipeg; d. 15 March 1939 in Matlock, Man.
Victor William Horwood’s father was a stained-glass artist who immigrated to Canada and set up his business in Prescott, Ont., in 1876. Victor, his mother, and his brothers arrived later, probably in 1881. Victor was educated in the public schools of Prescott and he studied art in New York and Minneapolis, Minn. On his return to Canada, he entered the Ottawa office of his elder brother, architect Edgar Lewis Horwood, and learned the profession. He later worked in Montreal, Toronto, and Chicago for brief periods. As he would explain in an article published in 1932, his “adventuring in search of architectural knowledge throughout the continent” brought him to Winnipeg in February 1904.
In that year Horwood designed a school at Fort William (Thunder Bay), Ont., and a residence for Mrs G. Nagy in Winnipeg. During 1905 his practice became more firmly established with commissions such as residences for businessmen John Sutton, William Chandler Birt, and William G. Bell, and an apartment building known as the Bell Block. His design for a school in Virden would be followed by others for schools in Sintaluta, Sask. (1906), Innisfail, Alta (1907), and Kildonan (Winnipeg) (1908). He became associated with the Riverview Realty Company, which was developing a luxury subdivision in the Fort Rouge area of Winnipeg, and in 1906 he had a house constructed in Riverview in anticipation of his marriage to Claratina, daughter of Thomas William Taylor, mla and former mayor of Winnipeg.
In February 1905 Horwood had begun publishing house designs in the Western Home Monthly. The series, which also included plans for a poultry house, church, and barn, continued until December 1910. During that period Horwood was responsible for a number of substantial Winnipeg apartment blocks for John and William Moxam, including Moxam Court (1907), Waldron Court (1909), MacMillan Court (1910), and the Vansittart apartments (1910), and for the Keewatin Beach Hotel (1909), which may not have been built. He is also known to have been the architect for at least two churches in the city, St Paul’s Presbyterian (1906–7) and the smaller Holy Cross Evangelical Lutheran (1910). Among the municipal buildings he designed were the St Boniface City Hall (1905–6) and nearby Fire Hall No.1 (1907–8). In addition, he provided plans for a tar-paper factory at Elmwood (Winnipeg) for Merrick, Anderson and Company (1908), the Avenue Theatre (1910–11) in Winnipeg, and a number of residences, some designed to client specifications and others intended for resale. Many of his buildings had neoclassical motifs, which were then quite fashionable.
Horwood’s private practice was probably never very large because he had set himself up in competition to many long-established architects such as John Hamilton Gordon Russell*, Joseph Greenfield, and Samuel Frank Peters, whose operations took in much of the available work. Nationally known firms such as Darling and Pearson [see John Andrew Pearson; Frank Darling*], Edward and W. S. Maxwell [see Edward Maxwell*], and Sproatt and Rolph [see Henry Sproatt], and American companies such as Carrère and Hastings and Warren and Wetmore, had also found clients in Winnipeg, leaving the market finely divided. Horwood’s business may have been further limited by his retiring character. Surviving impressions indicate that he was probably not an outgoing person, though he was a charter member of the local lodge of the Knights of Pythias (1906), belonged to the T-Square Society and the Manitoba Society of Artists, and lectured on architecture to the Young Men’s Christian Association.
On 17 Jan. 1911 Horwood was appointed assistant to the provincial architect, Samuel Hooper*. His Conservative leanings and the influence of his father-in-law may have helped him obtain the position. He closed his private practice. The appointment gave him a steady income and allowed Horwood and his wife to move to the more upper-class Wellington Crescent, where they built a new house during 1911–12. After Hooper’s sudden death Horwood was confirmed as provincial architect on 2 Nov. 1911, and, according to a contemporary source, he became responsible for “all the architectural work and building construction undertaken by the province, involving the expenditure of millions of dollars yearly.” At that time, the Conservative government of Rodmond Palen Roblin was in the second phase of an ambitious building program initiated by Hooper during 1905–6. This phase entailed the completion of a new agricultural college at St Vital (Winnipeg) and the erection of new structures in other cities and towns. An important part of the program involved the construction in Winnipeg of the new Law Courts Building (1913–16) and the neighbouring Central Power House (1915), both of which were designed by Horwood. The most important commission was not to be his, however. After a competition held throughout the British empire early in 1912, the contract for the design of a new legislative building was awarded to English architect Frank Worthington Simon and his partner, Henry Boddington. The provincial architect’s office would provide staff and perform routine tasks for Simon and would act as a buffer between him and local politicians. Horwood wrote an article on the project, which appeared in the November 1912 issue of Construction.
In July 1913 Horwood was appointed supervising architect on the legislative project in lieu of Simon. Supporters of the government insisted that the nomination was to placate Canadian architects who had objected to the presence of non-Canadians in the competition. Critics of the government would later allege that the assignment had given the Conservative Party complete control of the project.
Work on the legislative buildings began in August 1913. The following year, when the government announced that the structure, initially to cost about $2.8 million, would require an additional $1.75 million, Tobias Crawford Norris’s Liberal opposition, which had suspected negligence and corruption, demanded an investigation. The royal commission appointed to inquire into certain matters relating to the new parliament buildings was established on 1 April 1915 and headed by Chief Justice Thomas Graham Mathers. There were difficulties: the government had destroyed key documents; the contractor, Thomas Kelly, was not cooperative; and Horwood, an important witness, had left for Rochester, Minn., to have a malignant growth removed from his face, and was involved in keeping another witness, William Salt, assistant inspector of the buildings, in the United States. Nonetheless, the commission uncovered evidence of shoddy construction and government cover-ups. Kelly had grossly overcharged for materials and work and had made substantial kickbacks to the Conservative Party. Salt had falsified his records of caisson inspections at the urging of Horwood, who, in turn, had acted on the orders of his superiors. The provincial architect had probably assumed the role of cat’s paw for his political masters. The Roblin government resigned on 12 May; Horwood followed on 27 May. While recovering in Minneapolis, he stated to a Winnipeg Telegram reporter that he felt that he had been made the “goat” in the scandal. He added that he had been ruined financially and professionally; he would never practise again. Granted immunity from prosecution, he testified before commission members in Minneapolis against his former employers, incriminating several people.
Horwood and his wife sold their home on Wellington Crescent in the spring of 1916 and took up homesteading west of Matlock, where he remained, leading the life of a gentleman farmer. An officer in the militia since at least 1907, he had resigned his commission as captain of G Company in the 90th (Winnipeg) Battalion of Rifles in March 1914, citing his exacting duties as provincial architect, but he would remain a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the freemasons until his death. Occasionally, he contributed a short story, poem, or artwork to the Winnipeg Evening Tribune, the Manitoba Free Press, or the Western Home Monthly. In August 1919 he began to publish another series of plans for residences and other structures in the Farmer’s Advocate and Home Journal. These would run until 1924. The home series resumed in the Nor’-West Farmer in February 1926 and continued until the end of April 1936, restarted in the Country Guide and Nor’-West Farmer of May 1937 and ended in February 1938. The articles appear to have provided him with a modest income. Aside from this output, he had prepared an unpublished 100-page history of the Manitoba Association of Architects. He died in 1939 and was buried in the Taylor family plot at Brookside Cemetery in Winnipeg. A competent architect in a crowded professional field, he had fallen victim to political gamesmanship.
Randy R. Rostecki
Victor William Horwood is the author of “Designs for stable,” Canadian Architect and Builder (Toronto), 19 (1906): 134–35, “The new legislative and executive building, Winnipeg, Manitoba,” Construction (Toronto), 5 (1912): 69–78, and “Down the years,” Nor’-West Farmer and Farm and Home (Winnipeg), 20 June 1932. He also published architectural plans for residences and other structures in Western Home Monthly (Winnipeg) from February 1905 to December 1910, Farmer’s Advocate and Home Journal (Winnipeg) from August 1919 to April 1924, Nor’-West Farmer (Winnipeg) and the publication that succeeded it, Nor’-West Farmer and Farm and Home (Winnipeg), from February 1926 to April 1936, and the Country Guide and Nor’-West Farmer (Winnipeg) from May 1937 to February 1938.
AM, D 309 (Knights of Pythias), f.2; P 6837 (Winnipeg T-Square Society). City of Winnipeg, Arch. and records control branch, City Clerk’s dept., building permits, 1906–10. GRO, Reg. of births, Frome, 9 April 1874. LAC, R233-37-6, Ottawa, Central Ward, dist.100, subdist.b-4. Man., Dept. of Tourism, Culture, Heritage, Sport and Consumer Protection, Vital statistics agency (Winnipeg), no.1906-001784. Manitoba Free Press, 28 May, 16 July, 15 Aug. 1904; 6 April, 6, 17 May, 8, 29 July 1905; 28 June 1906; 1 April 1907; 23 May, 14 Nov. 1908; 13 March, 29 May 1909; 1 Nov. 1911; 21 April, 28 May 1915; 9 Aug. 1930. Manitoba Gazette (Winnipeg), 28 Jan., 18 Nov. 1911. La Minerve (Montréal), 3 janv. 1881. Winnipeg Telegram, 5 Oct. 1907; 1 Oct. 1910; 9 March 1914; 21 April, 6, 27, 28, 31 May, 10–11 June 1915. Winnipeg Tribune, 25 April 1906, 5 Aug. 1907, 4 May 1909, 20 March 1937, 15 March 1939, 27 Jan. 1940. Marilyn Baker, Symbol in stone: the art and politics of a public building: Manitoba’s third legislative building (Winnipeg, 1986). Man., Royal commission to inquire into certain matters relating to the new parliament buildings, Report (Winnipeg, 1915). Provincial government of Manitoba: various public buildings (Winnipeg, [1911?]). F. H. Schofield, The story of Manitoba (3v., Winnipeg, 1913). Who’s who in Canada, 1922.
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- Atlantic Canada (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Labrador)
- Central Canada (Ontario, Quebec)
- Western Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia)
- Territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut)
Bliss, Michael. -- Confederation : a new nationality. -- Toronto : Grolier, c1981. -- 96 p.
Bolotenko, George. -- A future defined : Canada from 1849 to 1873. -- [Ottawa] : National Archives of Canada, 1992. -- 253 p. -- Also published in French: Édifier l'avenir.
Bonenfant, Jean-Charles. -- La naissance de la Confédération. -- Montréal : Léméac, 1969. -- 155 p.
Bonenfant, Jean-Charles. -- The French-Canadians and the birth of Confederation. -- Ottawa : [Canadian Historical Association], 1966. 20 p. -- Also published in French: Les Canadiens français et la naissance de la Confédération.
Bothwell, Robert ; Drummond, Ian ; English, John. -- Canada since 1945 : power, politics, and provincialism. -- Rev. ed. -- Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 1989. -- 508 p.
Canada. Geographical Branch. -- The boundaries of Canada, its provinces and territories. -- Edited by Norman L. Nicholson. -- [Ottawa : Queen's Printer, 1964] -- ix, 142 p.
Canada since 1867 : a bibliographical guide. -- Eds. J. L. Granatstein ; Paul Stevens. -- 2nd ed. -- Toronto : Samuel Stevens Hakkert, 1977. -- 204 p.
Canada's founding debates. -- Ed. Janet Ajzenstat et al. -- Toronto : Stoddart, 1999. -- 502 p.
Canadian encyclopedia : year 2000 edition. -- Ed. James H. Marsh. -- 3rd print ed. -- Toronto : McClelland & Stewart, 1999. -- 2573 p. -- Also available online, at [www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com]
Canadian women : a history. -- Ed. Alison Prentice et al. -- 2nd ed. -- Toronto : Harcourt Brace Canada, 1996. -- 510 p.
Careless, J. M. S. -- The union of the Canadas : the growth of Canadian institutions, 1841-1857. -- Toronto : McClelland & Stewart, 1967. -- 256 p.
Cauchon, Joseph E. -- The union of the provinces of British North America. -- Québec : Hunter, Rose, 1865. -- Available in microform format : CIHM microfiche series no. 32356. -- Also published in French: L'Union des provinces de l'Amérique britannique du Nord.
The causes of Canadian Confederation. -- Ed. Ged Martin. -- Fredericton, N.B. : Acadiensis Press, c1990. -- 172 p.
Charland, Jean-Pierre et al. -- Le Canada, un pays en évolution : manuel d'apprentissage. -- Montréal : Lidec, 1994. -- 555 p.
Charlottetown Conference of 1864 [online]. -- [Cited October 18, 2001]. -- Access:
Colquhoun, A. H. U. -- The Fathers of Confederation : a chronicle of the birth of the dominion. -- Limited ed. -- Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 1964. -- 200 p.
Cook, Ramsay. -- Canada and the French-Canadian question. -- Toronto : Copp Clark Pitman, 1986. -- 219 p.
Creighton, Donald. -- The forked road : Canada 1939-1957. -- Toronto : McClelland & Stewart, 1976. -- 319 p.
Creighton, Donald. -- The road to Confederation : the emergence of Canada, 1863-1867. -- Toronto : Macmillan, c1964. -- 489 p.
Dickason, Olive Patricia. -- Canada's first nations : a history of founding peoples from earliest times. -- 3rd ed. -- Don Mills, Ont. : Oxford University Press, 2001. -- Also published in French: Les premières nations du Canada.
Documents on the Confederation of British North America. -- Ed. G. P. Browne. -- Toronto : McClelland & Stewart, c1969. -- 377 p.
Francis, R. Douglas. ; Jones, Richard ; Smith, Donald B. -- Destinies : Canadian history since Confederation. -- 4th ed. -- Toronto : Harcourt Canada, c2000. -- 597 p.
Francis, R. Douglas ; Jones, Richard ; Smith, Donald B. -- Origins : Canadian history to Confederation. -- 4th ed. -- Toronto : Harcourt Canada, c2000. -- 512 p.
Harris, R. Cole; Warkentin, John. -- Canada before Confederation: a study in historical geography. -- Ottawa : Carleton University Press, 1991. -- 338 p.
Hayes, John F. -- The nation builders. -- [Toronto] : Copp Clark, [c1968]. -- 271 p.
Histoire du Canada par les textes. -- Compilés par Michel Brunet. -- Montréal : Fides, c1963. -- Tome 2
Historical Atlas of Canada. -- Ed. R. Cole Harris et al. -- Toronto : University of Toronto Press, c1987-1993. -- Also published in French: Atlas historique du Canada.
The Historical development of the Indian Act. -- Ed. John Leslie ; Ron Maguire. -- 2nd ed. -- Ottawa : Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1978, c1983. -- 196 p. -- Also published in French: Historique de la loi sur les indiens.
Howe, Joseph. -- Confederation considered in relation to the interests of the Empire. -- London : J. Stanford, 1866. -- 37 p. -- Also available in microform : CIHM no. 23329
The illustrated history of Canada. -- Ed. Craig Brown. -- 2nd ed., revised. -- Toronto : Lester, 1996. -- 591 p.
Johnson, Patricia Mary. -- Canada since 1867 : selected historical resources. -- [Toronto] : McClelland & Stewart, . -- 120 p.
McGee, Thomas D'Arcy. -- Two speeches on the union of the provinces. -- Québec : Hunter, Rose, 1865. -- 34 p. -- Also available in microform : CIHM no. 36824
Moore, Christopher. -- 1867 : how the Fathers made a deal. -- Toronto : McClelland & Stewart, 1997. -- 279 p.
Morton, W. L. -- The critical years : the union of British North America, 1857-1873. --Toronto : McClelland & Stewart, c1964. -- 322 p.
Morton, W. L. -- The kingdom of Canada. -- Toronto : McClelland & Stewart, 1969. -- 594 p.
Schull, Joseph. -- The nation makers. -- Toronto : Macmillan, c1967. -- 134 p.
Smith, Goldwin. -- Canada and the Canadian question. --Toronto : University of Toronto Press, c1971. -- 236 p.
Stanley, George F. -- "Act or pact? : another look at Confederation." -- Report of the annual meeting - Canadian Historical Association. -- Ed. John S. Moir ; Adrien Pouliot ; Leopold Lamontagne. -- [S.l. : s.n.], 1956. -- P. 1-25. -- Report for annual meeting, June 1956. -- Also available online, at : [www.cha-shc.ca/bilingue/addresses/1956.htm]
The Triumphant union and the Canadian Confederation [motion picture]. -- Producers, Nicholas Balla ; Ronald Dick. -- [S.l.] : National Film Board of Canada, 1969. -- 58 min. 28 sec.
Tupper, Charles, Sir. -- A letter to the Right Honourable the Earl of Carnarvon, principal secretary of state for the colonies : in reply to a pamphlet entitled, Confederation considered in relation to the interests of the Empire. -- London : C. Westerton, . -- 78 p. -- Also available in microform: CIHM no. 23333.
Underhill, Frank H. -- The image of Confederation. -- Toronto : Canadian Broadcasting Corp., c1964. -- 84 p.
Waite, P. B. -- The Charlottetown conference. -- Ottawa : Centennial Commission, 1967. -- 28 p.
Waite, P. B. -- The life and times of Confederation, 1864-1867 : politics, newspapers and the union of British North America. -- 2nd ed., with corrections. -- Toronto : University of Toronto Press, c1962.
White, W. L. et al. -- Canadian Confederation : a decision-making analysis. -- Toronto : Macmillan of Canada ; [Ottawa] : Institute of Canadian Studies, Carleton University, c1979. -- 164 p.
Wilson, Bruce G. -- Colonial identities: Canada from 1760 to 1815. -- Ottawa : National Archives of Canada, c1988. -- 236 p. -- Also published in French: Identités coloniales.
Atlantic Canada (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland & Labrador)
The Atlantic provinces in Confederation. -- Ed. E. R. Forbes ; D. A. Muise. -- Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 1993. -- 628 p.
The Atlantic region to Confederation : a history. -- Ed. Philip A. Buckner ; John G. Reid. -- Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 1994. -- 491 p.
Blake, Raymond B. -- Canadians at last : Canada integrates Newfoundland as a province. -- Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 1994. -- 252 p.
Bolger, Francis. -- Canada's smallest province : a history of P.E.I. -- Halifax, N.S. : Nimbus, 1991. -- 403 p.
Bolger, Francis. -- Prince Edward Island and Confederation, 1863-1873. -- [Charlottetown] : St. Dunstan's University Press, 1964. -- 308 p.
Book of Newfoundland. -- Ed. Joseph R. Smallwood. -- St. John's, Nfld. : Newfoundland Book Publishers, 1979. -- 4 vol. -- Reprint of 1937 edition.
Callbeck, Lorne C. -- The cradle of Confederation. -- Fredericton, N.B. : Brunswick Press, 1964. -- 256 p.
Chadwick, St. John. -- Newfoundland : island into province. -- London : Cambridge University Press, 1967. -- 268 p.
A clear head in tempestuous times, Albert B. Perlin, the Wayfarer : observations on the National Convention and the Confederation issue, 1946-1949. -- Eds. Francis Hollohan ; Melvin Baker. -- St. John's, Nfld. : H. Cuff, 1986. -- 171 p.
The Confederation debate : 50 years and counting [online]. -- Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Web Site Project, 1999. -- [Cited June 28, 2001]. -- Access: www.heritage.nf.ca/confederation/default.html
Empty harbours, empty dreams [motion picture]. -- Producers, Barry Cowling ; Rex Tasker. -- [S. l.] : National Film Board of Canada, 1979. -- 58 min, 3 sec.
Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador. -- Eds. Joseph R. Smallwood ; Cyril F. Poole. -- St. John's, Nfld. : Smallwood Heritage Foundation, 1991- . -- 5 vol.
Full circle, first contact : Vikings and Skraelings in Newfoundland and Labrador [online]. -- The Newfoundland Museum, 2000. -- [Cited June 28, 2001]. -- Access: www.gov.nf.ca/fullcircle/index.htm
Hiller, James K. -- Confederation : deciding Newfoundland's future, 1934-1949. -- St. John's: Newfoundland Historical Society, 1998. -- 75 p.
Hiller, James K. -- The Confederation issue in Newfoundland, 1864-1869 : selected documents. -- [St. John's] : Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1974. -- 112 p.
Historical essays on the Atlantic Provinces. -- Ed. G. A. Rawlyk. -- [Toronto] : McClelland & Stewart, 1967. -- 262 p.
Let the people decide : Newfoundland, 1947-1949 [online]. -- Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Web Site Project, 1999. -- [Cited June 28, 2001]. -- Access: [www.heritage.nf.ca/confed_crb/default.html]
Mackenzie, David. -- Inside the Atlantic triangle : Canada and the entry of Newfoundland into Confederation, 1939-1949. -- Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 1986. -- 285 p.
MacNutt, W. S. -- New Brunswick, a history : 1784-1867. -- Toronto : Macmillan of Canada, 1984. -- 496 p.
Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage [online], 2000. -- [Cited June 28, 2001]. -- Access: [www.heritage.nf.ca/home.html]
The Newfoundland National Convention, 1946-1948. -- Ed. James Hiller ; M. F. Harrington. -- Montréal : McGill-Queen's University Press for Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1995. -- 2 vol.
Pope, W. H. -- The Confederation question considered from a Prince Edward Island point of view. -- Charlottetown, P.E.I. : E. Whelan, 1866. -- 28 p.
Pryke, Kenneth J. -- Nova Scotia and Confederation, 1864-1874. -- Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 1979. -- 240 p.
Rowe, Frederick. -- History of Newfoundland and Labrador. -- Toronto : McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1980. -- 563 p.
Soirée '99 -- the Confederation of Newfoundland and Canada [online]. -- [Cited June 28, 2001]. -- Access: [www.soiree99.nfld.net/historical/toc.htm]
Walsh, Bren. -- More than a poor majority : the story of Newfoundland's Confederation with Canada. -- St. John's, Nfld. : Breakwater, c1985. -- 332 p.
Weale, David ; Baglole, Harry. -- The Island and Confederation : the end of an era. -- [S.l. : s. n.], 1973. -- 166 p.
Whitelaw, W. M. -- The Maritimes and Canada before Confederation. -- Toronto : Oxford University Press, . -- 347 p.
Central Canada (Ontario, Quebec)
Baillargeon, Georges. -- "À propos de l'abolition du régime seigneurial". -- Revue d'histoire de l'Amérique française. -- Vol. 22, no. 3 (décembre 1968). -- P. 365-391
Bothwell, Robert. -- A short history of Ontario. -- Edmonton : Hurtig, 1986. -- 222 p.
Bouchard, Claude ; Robert Lagassé. -- Nouvelle-France, Canada, Québec : histoire du Québec et du Canada. --Montréal : Beauchemin, c1986. -- 386 p.
De Volpi, Charles P. -- Québec : recueil iconographique, 1608-1875 = Québec : a pictorial record, 1608-1875. -- Don Mills, Ont. : Longman, c1971. -- 188 p.
La Gazette officielle du Québec : 125 ans d'édition gouvernementale. -- [Québec] : Les Publications du Québec, c1993. -- 219 p.
Gwyn, Sandra. -- The private capital : ambition and love in the age of Macdonald and Laurier. -- Toronto : McClelland & Stewart, 1989. -- 514 p.
Hamelin, Jean. -- Histoire du Québec. -- Montréal : France-Amérique, 1981. -- 538 p.
Hamelin, Jean ; Provencher, Jean. -- Brève histoire du Québec. -- 5e éd. -- Montréal : Boréal, c1990. -- 134 p.
Lacoursière, J. ; Provencher, J. ; Vaugeois, D. -- Canada Québec : synthèse historique, 1534-2000. -- Sillery, Quebec : Septentrion, 2000. -- 591 p.
Linteau, Paul-André ; Durocher, René ; Robert, Jean-Claude. -- Histoire du Québec contemporain. -- Montréal : Boréal Express, 1979. -- 660 p. -- Tome 1 : De la Confédération à la crise.
Monet, Jacques. -- La première révolution tranquille : le nationalisme canadien-français, 1837-1850. -- Montréal : Fides, c1981. -- 504 p.
Ouellet, Fernand. -- Le Bas-Canada 1791-1840 : changements structuraux et crise. -- Ottawa : Éditions de l'Université d'Ottawa, c1976. -- 541 p.
Provencher, Jean. -- Chronologie du Québec. -- Montréal : Boréal, c1991. -- 216 p.
Silver, A. I. -- The French-Canadian idea of Confederation, 1864-1900. -- Toronto : University of Toronto Press, c1982. -- 257 p.
Swainson, Donald. -- Ontario and Confederation. -- Ottawa : Centennial Commission, 1967. -- 26 p.
Wallot, Jean-Pierre. -- "Le régime seigneurial et son abolition au Canada". -- Canadian Historical Review. -- Vol. 50, no. 4 (December 1969). -- P. 367-393
White, Randall. -- Ontario, 1610-1985 : a political and economic history. -- Toronto : Dundurn, 1985. -- 352 p.
Western Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia)
Anstey, Arthur ; Sutherland, Neil. -- British Columbia : a short history. -- Toronto : Gage, 1957. -- 55 p.
Bercuson, David ; Palmer, Howard. -- Settling the Canadian West. -- Toronto : Grolier, 1984. -- 95 p.
Black, Norman Fergus. -- History of Saskatchewan and the Old North West. -- 2nd ed. -- Regina : North West Historical Company, 1913. -- 605 p.
Bowers, Vivien ; Garrod, Stan. -- Our land: building the west. -- Toronto : Gage Educational Publishing, 1987. -- Also published in French: L'ouest et son histoire.
Friesen, Gerald. -- The Canadian Prairies : a history. -- Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 1984. -- 524 p.
Graham, W. R. -- "Indian treaties and the settlement of the North-West". -- Saskatchewan history. -- Vol. 2, no. 1 (Winter 1949). -- P. 19-22
Historical essays on British Columbia. -- Eds. J. Friesen ; H. K. Ralston. -- Toronto : Gage, 1980. -- 293 p.
Historical essays on the Prairie Provinces. -- Ed. Donald Swainson. -- Toronto : McClelland & Stewart, 1970. -- 312 p.
A History of British Columbia : selected readings. -- Ed. Patricia E. Roy. -- Toronto : Copp Clark Pitman, 1989. -- 357 p.
Ireland, William E. -- "The Annexation petition of 1869". -- British Columbia historical quarterly. -- Vol. 4, no. 4 (October 1940).
Lower, J. Arthur. -- Western Canada, an outline history. -- Vancouver : Douglas and McIntyre, 1983. -- 346 p.
Manitoba : the birth of a province. -- Ed. W. L. Morton. -- [Winnipeg] : Manitoba Record Society, 1984. -- 265 p.
Morton, W. L. -- The West and Confederation, 1857-1871. -- Ottawa : Canadian Historical Association, 1968. -- 20 p. -- Also published in French: L'ouest et la Confédération.
Ormsby, Margaret. -- British Columbia : a history. -- [Rev. ed.] -- [Toronto] : Macmillan of Canada, 1971. -- 566 p.
The Pacific connection : ties that bound [motion picture]. -- Producers, Peter Jones ; John Taylor. -- [S. l.] : National Film Board of Canada, 1982. -- 22 min. 46 sec.
The Prairie west : historical readings. -- Ed. R. Douglas Francis ; Howard Palmer. -- 2nd ed. -- Edmonton : Pica Press, 1992. -- 748 p.
Shelton, George. -- British Columbia and Confederation. -- Victoria, B.C. : Morriss Printing, 1967. -- 250 p.
Voisey, Paul. -- "The urbanization of the Canadian prairies, 1871-1916". -- Histoire sociale = Social history. -- Vol. 8, no. 15 (Mai-May 1975). -- P. 75-101
Woodcock, George. -- British Columbia : a history of the province. -- 1st paperback ed. -- Vancouver : Douglas & McIntyre, 1994. -- 288 p.
Territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut)
Berton, Pierre. -- Klondike : the last great gold rush, 1896-1899. -- Rev. ed. -- Toronto : McClelland & Stewart, 1972. -- 472 p.
Cameron, Kirk ; White, Graham. -- Northern governments in transition : political and constitutional development in the Yukon, Nunavut, and the western Northwest Territories. -- Montreal : Institute for Research on Public Policy, 1995. -- 151 p.
Canada welcomes Nunavut [online]. -- CANOE (Canadian Online Explorer), 1999. -- [Cited June 28, 2001]. -- Access: [www.canoe.ca/CNEWSNunavut/]
Coates, Kenneth. -- Canada's colonies : a history of the Yukon and Northwest Territories. -- Toronto : Lorimer, 1985. -- 251 p.
Coates, Ken S. ; Morrison, W. R. -- Land of the midnight sun : a history of the Yukon. -- Edmonton : Hurtig, 1988. -- 336 p.
Inuit Tapirisat of Canada [online]. -- [Cited June 28, 2001]. -- Access: www.itk.ca/
Jull, Peter. -- An Aboriginal northern territory : creating Canada's Nunavut. -- [Casuarina, N. T. : Australian National University, North Australia Research Unit], 1992. -- 39 p.
Lingard, C. Cecil. -- Territorial government in Canada : the autonomy question in the old North-West Territories. -- Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 1946. -- 269 p.
Merritt, John et al. -- Nunavut : political choices and manifest destiny. -- Ottawa : Canadian Arctic Resources Committee, 1989. -- 126 p.
Morrison, William R. -- True North : the Yukon and Northwest Territories. -- Toronto : Oxford University Press, 1998. -- 202 p.
Nunavut '99 : changing the map of Canada : the birth of a territory fulfills a dream. -- Ed. Marion Soublière & Greg Coleman. -- Iqaluit : Nortext Multimedia Inc., 1999. -- 131 p.
The Nunavut Handbook 1999. -- Ed. Marion Soublière. -- Iqaluit : Nortext Multimedia Inc., 1999. -- [414 p.] -- Available online, at: www.arctictravel.com
Purich, Donald. -- The Inuit and their land : the story of Nunavut. -- Toronto : James Lorimer, 1992. -- 176 p.
Thomas, Lewis H. -- North-West Territories, 1870-1905. -- Ottawa : Canadian Historical Association, 1970. -- 24 p. -- Also published in French: Les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, 1870-1905.
Welcome to Nunavut [motion picture]. -- Producers, Mark Zannis and George Hargrave. -- [S. l.] : National Film Board of Canada, 1999. -- 43 min 06 sec.
Zaslow, Morris. -- The Northwest Territories, 1905-1980. -- Ottawa : Canadian Historical Association, 1984. -- Also published in French: Les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, 1905-1980.
Zaslow, Morris. -- The opening of the Canadian North, 1870-1914. -- Toronto : McClelland & Stewart, 1971. -- 339 p.
Zaslow, Morris. -- "The Yukon : Northern development in a Canadian-American context". -- Regionalism in the Canadian community, 1867-1967. -- Ed. Mason Wade. -- Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 1969. -- 300 p.
Alexander Galt : the stubborn idealist [motion picture]. -- Producers, Julian Biggs ; Guy Glover. -- [S. l.] : National Film Board of Canada, 1962. -- 27 min., 56 sec. -- Also distributed in French: Alexander Galt : l'idéaliste impénitent.
Beck, J. Murray. -- Joseph Howe. -- 1st paperback ed. -- Kingston, Ont. : McGill-Queen's University Press, 1984. -- 2 vol.
Black, Martha L. -- Martha Black. -- Edited and updated by Flo Whyard. -- Rev. ed. -- Anchorage, Alaska : Alaska Northwest Publishing, 1986. -- 166 p.
Careless, J. M. S. -- Brown of the Globe. -- Toronto : Dundurn, c1989. -- 2 vol.
Charles Tupper : the big man [motion picture]. -- Producers, Julian Biggs; Guy Glover. -- [S. l.] : National Film Board, 1961. -- 28 min. -- Also distributed in French: Charles Tupper : le magnanime.
Coles, Mercy Ann. -- "Diary". -- National Archives of Canada, MG24 B66. (See ArchiviaNet for more information.)
Creighton, Donald. -- John A. Macdonald : the young politician, the old chieftain. -- Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 1998. -- 524 ; 630 p.
Dictionary of Canadian biography. -- Regular edition. -- Toronto : University of Toronto Press, c1966- .
Durant, Vincent. -- War horse of Cumberland : the life and times of Sir Charles Tupper. -- Hantsport, N.S. : Lancelot Press, 1985. -- 117 p.
Georges-Étienne Cartier : the lion of Québec [motion picture]. -- Producers, Julian Biggs ; Guy Glover. -- [S. l.] : National Film Board of Canada, 1962. -- 27 min. 58 sec. -- Also distributed in French: Georges-Étienne Cartier : le lion du Québec.
Gwyn, Richard. -- Smallwood : the unlikely revolutionary. -- 2nd ed., reissue with added afterword. -- Toronto : M&S, c1999. -- 459 p.
Hannay, James. -- The life and times of Sir Leonard Tilley, being a political history of New Brunswick for the past seventy years. -- Saint John, N.B. : [s.n.], 1897. -- 400 p. -- Also available in microform: CIHM no. 05354.
Hodgins, Bruce W. -- John Sandfield Macdonald, 1812-1872. -- Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 1971. -- 131 p.
Horwood, Harold. -- Joey : the life and political times of Joseph Smallwood. -- Toronto : Stoddart, 1989. -- 348 p.
John A. Macdonald : the impossible idea [motion picture]. -- Producers, Julian Biggs; Guy Glover. -- [S.l.] : National Film Board of Canada, 1961. -- 27 min. 41 sec. -- Also distributed in French: John A. Macdonald : L'intuition fantastique.
Phelan, Josephine. -- The ardent exile : the life and times of Thos. Darcy McGee. -- Toronto : Macmillan Co. of Canada, 1951. -- 317 p.
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"The Right Honourable Sir John Alexander Macdonald," First among equals : the prime minister in Canadian life and politics [online]. -- [Cited November 12, 2001]. -- Access : www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/primeministers/h4-3025-e.html
Smallwood, Joseph. -- I chose Canada : the memoirs of the Honourable Joseph R. "Joey" Smallwood. -- Scarborough, Ont. : New American Library of Canada, 1975. -- 2 vol.
Tupper, Charles, Sir. -- The life and letters of the Rt. Hon. Sir Charles Tupper, Bart., K.C.M.G. -- Ed. E. M. Saunders. -- London : Cassell, 1916. -- 2 vol.
Wallace, Carl M. -- Sir Leonard Tilley : a political biography [microform]. -- [Ottawa] : [National Library of Canada], 1972. -- 1 reel, 35 mm. -- (Canadian theses on microfilm ; no. 13621). -- Ph.D. thesis, University of Alberta, 1972.
Whelan, Edward. -- Biographical sketch of the Honorable Edward Whelan, together with a compilation of his principal speeches. -- Charlottetown, P.E.I. : Published for the author, 1888. -- 301 p. -- Also available on microform: CIHM no. 26184.