Writing a narrative essay is an essential talent for field research. Rather than summing things up for your reader, it presents your experience and allows them to draw their own conclusions. The narrative essay makes it point by subtly guiding the reader, rather than battering them the way a rhetorical essay would.
By observing these basic ideas, you can improve your narrative essay.
Complex words and syntax are a hindrance to clarity and should be avoided. Ideas should be clearly distributed between sentences and paragraphs.
Example: Although I have never been to the races before, I was very excited to behold them, yet also somewhat nervous, because of the type of people who go there.
Improved: I’d never been to a horse race. I was excited to go, but also a little nervous, since I wasn’t sure about the people at the track.
2. Don’t describe each and every one of your own movements
Example: As I went in the door, I turned and saw a TV. I looked around and saw posters on the wall. As I went further in I noticed everyone was watching M*A*S*H.
Improved: I immediately noticed the posters on the wall, though everyone else’s eyes were focused on a TV playing M*A*S*H.
3. Avoid the second-person narrative
An important part of the narrative essay is the fact that the writer experienced the events described.
Example: As you go in the door, you will turn and see a TV. You look around and see posters on the wall. As you go further in you notice everyone is watching M*A*S*H.
Writing in the present tense is okay, however.
4. To interest the reader, dynamic word choice is key
Avoid sounding too clinical. Use the same slang, idiom, and turns of phrase you would use in speech. Avoid passive constructions.
Example: I am presented an array of unpleasant photos in which many casualties are shown after automobile accidents.
Improved: They showed me a book stuffed with gruesome pictures of people who’d been in car wrecks.
5. Limit references
MLA format recommends including citations in the text, but in a narrative essay this is disruptive. If a work was helpful, cite it in a ‘Works Consulted’ list after the essay. Explain yourself as you go along, rather than trying to refer your reader back to a previous statement.
Example: When I first saw the comic book fans jumping up and down, I thought as they would, “Lord, what fools these mortals be” (Gaiman 1989.) I later learned why they do this.
Improved: The fans jump up and down. When I first saw this, I wondered what they were doing and my mind conjured a quote from Shakespeare that Neil Gaiman used in his “Sandman”: “Lord, what fools these mortals be.” However, I watched a bit longer and realized the company spokesmodels were throwing free merchandise. The fans wanted to get the most from their day at the convention.
The narrative essay is a keen rhetorical tool because it allows the readers to draw their own conclusions, but falling into the traps above deprive it of its effectiveness. By avoiding these errors, you can subtly guide your reader in your desired direction.
SECTION B: CONTINUOUS WRITING: 50 MARKS
CONTINOUS: ARTICLE: Description on a Person
A Prominent Malaysian Leader
As the fourth and most dynamic Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad will indelible impression on the sands of Malaysia for many years to come. He held the post for 22 years from 1981 to 2003, making him Malaysia's longest-serving Prime Minister, and one of the longest-serving leaders in Asia.
Born on 20th December, 1925 in Alor Setar, Dr. Mahathir is the son of a teacher. He is the youngest of nine children of a school teacher and a housewife. His father, Mohamad Iskandar, was of Indian descent, being the son of a Muslim and a Malay mother, while Mahathir's own mother, Datin Wan Tempawan Wan Hanafi, was Malay.He is married to Tun Dr. Siti Hasmah binti Haji Mohamad Ali, they have seven children, four sons and three daughters. From an early age, Tun Mahathir had the importance of education drummed into him by his father, who was also a strict disciplinarian.
After his early education at the Maktab Sultan Abdul Hamid in Alor Setar, he enrolled at the King Edward VII College of Medicine in the University of Singapore. Armed with a MBBS degree in medicine, he set up his own clinic, the Maha Clinic in Alor Setar. As a doctor, Tun Mahathir came into close contact with people from variety of social strata and enjoyed a close rapport with them. He understood their problems. Thus, when he was thrust into the politic limelight, he strove to fulfil the needs of the people.
He was first catapulted into the world of politics when he became the Member of Parliement for Alor Setar in 1964. After holding a number of portfolios, including Minister of Education, Minister of Trade and Industry and Deputy Prime Minister, he finally became the Prime Minister on 16th July, 1981. The country flourished with Dr. Mahathir at the helm of the government. His contributions to the nation are so immense and par excellence. He has left his mark in every aspect – in politics, economy or education.
Realizing that government-owned enterprises are neither efficient nor profitable, he initiated the privation policy in 1983. This had immediate effect of cutting down bureaucratic ineptitude and operational cost while at the same time generating more revenue.
With collapse of the prices of agricultural commodities in the eighties, Tun Mahathir decided that it was time to shift the nation’s focus to more profitable areas. Thus, he started the industrialization programme. Reputed as the country’s top salesman, he showcased Malaysia to investors abroad in a bid to woo them. As a result of the heavy industrialization drive, major projects like national car project or PROTON and the steel company, PERWAJA, together with other mega project were launched one after another. Next, realizing that industrialization would require a good infrastructure, he set about improving it. The Mahathir era saw a successful completion of the North-South Highway, the East-West Highway, the Multimedia Super Corridor, the Kuala Lumpur International Airport in Sepang and many more.
An astute politician, he charted the growth of the country’s progress from the day he took office. He envisages that Malaysia can only attain the status of a fully developed country if it becomes an industrialization one and this ambition has been his main agenda during his tenure. With this in mind, he announced Vision 2020, his most ambitious vision.
Frank and outspoken by nature, Tun Mahathir speak without fear nor favour. This has been the hallmark of thus much respected statesman. The inefficiency of local and international organizations has always come under his scrutiny and critism.
It has been almost two decades since Tun Mahathir took over reins of the government. It has undoubtedly been the golden era for Malaysia with many notable achievements.
Find the meaning of the 16 bold words
CONTINOUS: ARTICLE: Description on Places
The Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA)
Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) is one of Asia's major aviation hubs and is a destination in itself. It is located at the top of the southern corridor of Peninsular Malaysia, bordering the states of Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. It is situated in the Sepang district, approximately 50 km from the capital city, Kuala Lumpur. This RM 9 billion airport was opened by his majesty, the Yang Di-Pertuan Agong Tuanku Jaafar on June 27, 1998. The airport which covers 10 000 hectares of land took less than 5 years to build. It has a capacity to handle 25 million passengers and 1.2 million tonnes of cargo annually.
Despite its mammoth size, it is user-friendly and as our former Prime Minister, Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad pointed out, it is not just an airport but a piece of art delicates to beauty as well as the environment. It is often described as the “airport in the forest, forest in the airport” because it is a futuristic structure set in rainforest landscaping. Lush tropical forests, with its diverse and exotic flora, skirt the entire airport structure.
The control tower, standing at 130 metres, is one the tallest in the world. The colourful flora and the cascading waterfalls are part of spectacular and breathtaking sight which can be viewed from the Super View Corridor. Moving through the airport complex provides the visitor with glimpses of different forest – highlands, swamp, bamboo and multicoloured flora.
The five-level Main Terminal building which is 241 000 squares metres, is located right at the heart of the airport complex. The building with its futuristic design of glass and steel is both the entry and exit point of passengers. On the top of the building is the departure concourse, and other facilities such as foreign exchange counters and international telephone facilities.
The Satellite Building where passengers make connections to other international flights is linked to the Main International Building by an automated train shuttle. The Satellite Building houses lounges, prayers rooms, duty free shops and a 80-room hotel for transit passengers.
The KLIA will be the country’s nucleus that will spearhead business and trade. It is expected to provide 30 000 jobs and reap economic benefits for the country. The successful completion of the airport well ahead of schedule reflects the ability of Malaysians to build a world-class airport that has become the pride of the country.
CONTINOUS: Descriptive - Description of a Scene
A Road Accident
Road accidents are reported in newspaper and on television every day. There are more frequently caused by reckless drivers rather than faulty vehicles. Last Saturday, while I was travelling from Ipoh, I witnessed a serious accident. The scene of the accidents was vivid in my mind.
A motorcyclist was following behind was taxi very closely. He was so impatient that he was trying to overtake my taxi even near a sharp bend. At that critical moment, there was an oncoming car. The taxi driver swerved to the roadside and I got a terrible jolt. It was too late for the motorcyclist to avoid the car. His motorcycle ran against the bumper of the car and smashed its windscreen. The motorcyclist somersaulted over the car and was found lying in a pool of blood. It was a scene to chill the flesh! The car driver, who was cut by the flying glass, was in a state of shock. All that happened in split second and fear overwhelmed us.
The taxi driver stopped his taxi and I quickly ran to the nearest to the nearest telephone booth to inform the police and the hospital. From a distance I could see some people trying to help the injured motorcyclist and the car driver. They carried them into one of the onlooker’s car and sent them to the hospital for treatment. Meanwhile the taxi driver tried to control and directs the traffic. Soon the police arrived and they promptly took some measurements and evidence. After that they moved the damaged car and the motorcycle to the roadside to ease the traffic congestion. They also took down the evidence provided by witnesses and onlookers. Some sweepers were clearing the debris and the blood stains on the road.
When the taxi finally continued the journey, I silently thanked God for my narrow escape. I learned a good lesson that impatience and recklessness would bring harm and danger. I was happy to see that Malaysians are public-spirited and they render help to others readily. Since then I remember and follow the saying ‘more haste less speed’ and ‘prevention is better than cure’. I believe good road manners and roads safety campaigns can help to reduce the number of road accidents which cause injuries, loss and lives and properties.
CONTINUOUS: NARRATIVE WRITING – Title Given
My Most Embarrassing Situation
Everyone has been embarrassed at one time or another. It is that moment in time when you wish the earth would open up and swallow you. The anxiety and discomfort felt during that time which may only last a few seconds feels like time has stood still.
I remember so well when I had my most embarrassing moment. I was in Form 4 and it was during the school recess. The minute the bell rang for recess, I rushed to the toilet because I had been controlling my urges since class started. I didn’t want to miss class because the lesson taught that morning was to include tips for the forthcoming examination.
Without realising, I had rushed to the girls’ toilet. The prolonged control and an upset stomach made worse by two glasses of cold milk in the morning made me grunt and groan in what I thought in what I thought was the privacy of the cubicle. I thought I heard giggling outside and wondered why the giggles sounded unusually near. A few minutes later I came out the cubicle and discovered my horror that I had entered the girls’ toilet. To make matters worse, the few girls standing outside didn’t even turn away when I came out. Instead they looked down at me, then only they turned quickly away. Horror of horrors, I had forgotten to zip up! No beetroot could have matched the colour of my face at this point in time!
They news of my predicament spread like wild fire throughout school. I was truly the talk of the town. I felt like I could either walk around feeling perpetually self-conscious and embarrassed or I could turn the situation round, perhaps even to my advantage. I remembered my mother’s words that ‘if you can’t beat them, join them’. So I decided to make fun of myself, to laugh at myself too. It works. Everyone got bored after a while and nobody teased me after that.
It was indeed an eye-opening experience for me. I have learnt that when people laugh at you, you should laugh along. You must not take yourself seriously. Learn to look at yourself through other people’s eyes and you will realise that most of the time when they laugh at you, they just want to have some fun. They mean no harm. If you can make people laugh, it’s like bringing sunshine into their lives and as someone said, ‘those who bring sunshine to the lives of others cannot keep it from themselves.’
CONTINUOUS: NARRATIVE WRITING – With a starting phrase
Write a story starting with: “The widow had to work hard to bring up her little son alone...”
The widow had to work hard to bring up her little son alone. This was after her husband’s early death. She and her son lived in a wooden house. It was a small house with only one bedroom and a kitchen.
Mariam wanted Sam to study hard to get good result. So she would not let Sam help her do any household chores or wash his own clothes. The years flew by. Sam sat for his SPM examination and pass with flying colours.
His mother was very happy. She went round telling her friends, “My Sam will be leaving for the city to study in a college. He will become a Manager one day. I’ll move to live with him in the city. Then, my struggle is worth it.”
So Mariam continued to work hard to send money to Sam who was studying a business degree. For Mariam, it was a tough life. Meanwhile, Sam kept on phoning home to ask for more money. Mariam even had to borrow from her neighbours and friends to send her son the money.
Three years Sam stopped calling home. He did not even let his mother where he was. When she phoned the faculty, they told her that he had graduated and left for job. However, they could not her more. Mariam was baffled. Where was Sam? She was so sure he would come back and fetch her for city. So, she started to pack some of her bags and boxes.
Three months later, there was still no news or call from Sam. One day, Mariam’s niece, Kate, came to talk to her about Sam. She told her aunt, “Auntie, a friend of mine met Sam in a bank. He’s the branch manager. This is his address.”
Early in the morning, Mariam took the first bus to the city. At the bus station, she took a taxi and showed the taxi driver the bank address. On the way there, she told the driver about Sam and what a filial son he was.
The driver stopped his taxi in front of a tall building. She got out of the taxi and smiled at him happily. This was the moment she was going to meet Sam. She imagined him showing surprise and delight at meeting his mother. Inside the building, a security guard asked her who she was looking for. She told the guard Sam’s name.
The bank staff saw an old lady holding a worn-out handbag. They were wondering, “Who is this woman? Why is she asking for our manager?”
Meanwhile, Sam pretended he did not know his mother. Feeling disgusted and ashamed, he asked the security guard to ask her to leave. Mariam was shocked to hear that! She looked Sam in a disappointed feeling ever, and ran out of the bank.
Back in her house, Mariam cried the whole night. She cried and cried till she had no more tears. The next morning, she was sitting by the window with Sam’s photo on her lap. She saw him walking towards their house. Soon she was shouting and crying, “My Sam is back! My Sam is back!”
Sam ran towards her and hugged Mariam as he never let go. He was so sorry and regretted the way he behaved. His colleagues were the one who made him realized his big mistakes neglected his mother.
The neighbours heard her. They too shouted and cheered, feeling happy for her.
CONTINUOUS: NARRATIVE WRITING: With an ending
Write a story ending with “... En. Nizam was grateful he had such good neighbours.”
Not even in his wildest dream did En. Nizam think he would lose so much in such a short time. It had been a trying period. When he got word that his father was on his death bed, En. Nizam’s family rushed to his hometown. Even before the funeral rites were over, he received a call from his immediate neighbour that his house was partly destroyed by fire and that the cause of the fire was believed to be arson.
Members of En. Nizam’s immediate family and his relatives were in state of disarray. First, it was the death of an elder member of a family, then this misfortune. Although En. Nizam was worried, deep in his heart he knew that he had very good neighbours, friends who would stand by him in good times and bad.
Sure enough, the minute he set foot in the compound of his house, he knew he was right. His neighbours, Mr. Subra and En. Majid, were there taking a close watch on the house. He learnt from them that the neighbours had been taking turns to keep an all-day vigil on the house. He thanked them from the bottom of his heart.
After inspecting the damage caused by the fire, En. Majid handed donations collected by the residents living in the area. His neighbours had passed the hat around and the donations came up to a significant amount. Although, the donations was still short of the amount required to repair the damages, en. Nazim was grateful.
The next day, En. Nazim was even more overwhelmed by the care and concern shown by his neighbours. They were there to extend their condolences and to show their support. Donations came pouring in. The women folk were busy preparing all the meals for the family.
With the help of his neighbours, En. Nizam got a building contractor to repair the damaged sections of the house. The repair and renovations took almost a week to complete. When the house was ready, the neighbour turned up in full force to congratulate him.
Tears welled up in E. Nizam’s eyes. He was at a loss for words. En. Nizam was grateful he had such good neighbours.
Which do you prefer, living in the countryside or living in the city?
I think living in the countryside is far better than living in the city. There are numerous of reasons why living in countryside is the better than the city. The scenery, the streets, the people and the paced are totally different compare to the city.
The first outstanding characteristic about the countryside is that it is beautiful and peaceful. The air is fresh and the surroundings green. This is because the countryside is free from pollution, be it air, land or noise pollution. There no such perfect peaceful view that you can see other than in the countryside.
There are no crowded streets and heavy traffic in the countryside. Thus there are no fumes from cars and smoke from factories buildings to pollute the air. The trees surrounded the countryside help the people from inhaling the polluted air. The freshness smell of plant somehow helps the people of the countryside to have a healthy life.
Furthermore, people in the countryside are more conscious of keeping their surroundings clean and so there is little throwing of rubbish everywhere, only at designated places. This is unlike the cities where if the garbage trucks do not collect the rubbish disposed by household or restaurants, the city will be overflowing with rubbish! This will attract the mosquitoes, fly, rats and wild dogs to pollute their surrounding that will cause them to have diseases like dengue and cholera.
Thirdly, heavy traffic and crowded streets increase the level of noise pollution. The honking of cars in the streets is continuous and the crowds on the roads increase the hub of activity. There are also sound of the machine used in manufacturing factories, loud radio in and out the mall. These add to the noise of the city. Even if one lives in residential areas, one is never far from busy streets.
However, in the countryside, life is slow-paced. There is no need to rush around because there are not too many places to go. Most places are close by and people can walk or cycle. Less vehicle used, so less fumes is released.
The most heart-warming thing about the countryside is the attitude of people. People are friendly and helpful. If there are any happy or festive occasions, everyone pitches in to help. This feeling of cooperation and neighbourliness is what separates the countryside from the city.
In the city, people are too busy to take note of the people around. Some hardly even know their neighbours. So they would not even be bothered about what happens to people around. This is why the crime rate is increasing in the city because bystanders do not rush in to help if a crime is committed on the streets.
The pace of life in the countryside is slow so people have more time to enjoy life as the day goes on. Thus, for me to enjoy the quality of life, I prefer to live in the countryside.
In my opinion, one has not experienced life until one has lived in the city. There is so much to see and experience in the bright lights of the city that you cannot get in the countryside. Here in the city, you can learn about how to get along with people of different types, encounter varied situations and solve problems. All these help a person to grow in maturity. After all, experience is the best teacher.
In the countryside, however, you only move around people you are used to. So, you seldom encounter strangers or new and demanding situations. Life is more mundane and routine-like. Staying in a secure, safe place does not allow for one to gain new experiences and grow in maturity.
Furthermore, young people need a life that is exciting and pleasurable. It is the city that offers you entertainment- cinemas, parks and eating places. Here you can hang out with friends and family members. Life as fast-paced and this keeps you active and alert all times. And when it comes to educational opportunities, the city abounds in this. There are good school and libraries that are necessary for your mental development. Furthermore, there are places like museums and educational centres where you can go, to increase your knowledge.
Such places that offer you entertainment or learning opportunities are of course not available in the countryside. For entertainment, there is only the occasional festive celebration or marriage feast or fishing outing. Some may find this appealing but not me. Moreover, opportunities to widen your knowledge are limited in the countryside.
Another point in support of living in the city is the available of jobs. In the city, you can find a job that suits your qualification or interest. If you find a job unsuitable, you can always move to another. This, naturally, increases your earning power and you have better chances of a more comfortable life. Of course, one may argue that one can live in the countryside and work in the city but this will only incur extra expenses and unnecessary inconveniences.
Thus, for all the reasons mentioned above, I think that life in the city is better than living in the countryside. After all, you are young only once.
Social Networking Website
A large number of internet users have joined social networking websites. A social network service is an online service, platform, or site that focuses on building and reflecting of social networks or social relations among people. For example is for those who wants to share interests and, or activities. A social network service essentially consists of a representation of each user which known often as a profile, his or her social links, and a variety of additional services.
Most social network services are web based and provide means for users to interact over the internet, such as e-mail and instant messaging. Online community services are sometimes considered as a social network service. In a broader sense, social network service usually means an individual-centered service whereas online community services are group-centered. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, activities, events, and interests within their individual networks.
In the last five years, they have been growing up more and more popular. This increase in their popularity has led to a large number of members.
One of the many reasons why Yahoo!, MySpace and Facebook social networking websites have increased in popularity is due to the fact that they cover a wide variety of different topics, issues and interest. They do not just focus on one particular group of individuals or one particular issue. Their policy is to invite as many types of internet users to join as possible. By this, it gives members a wide selection of online friends to choose from.
If you are looking to join a social networking website that is more focused on creating friendships or partnerships between internet users preferable with the same interests, then you will want to focus on social networking websites. They have a particular focus. The prevalent websites focus on important issues, topics and hobbies, such as pet owners, religion travel and others. So before you join, think of an issue you are interested in and sign up for the website that focuses on that issue.
What really sets them apart from other websites? What is so special about them? These are questions which have been asked by many who show interest in joining. Primarily, it is the community. As mentioned, such social networking sites tend to focus on a particular topic, issue or hobby. This means that if you are a keen traveller and you would like to speak to other keen travellers, you will want to join a traveller’s networking sites.
The difference between these social networking sites and traditional ones is that you will automatically be paired with hundreds, if not thousands, of other internet users who share the same interests, views or beliefs as you. This is a big bonus to the members.
Another benefit to joining the social networking website is that you are, in a way, safer than those who are members of other networks. Most of them require activation before joining the site. Before activation can occur, many users are required to state their reasons for wanting to join the network or they may be required to fill out a small questionnaire pertaining to determine whether or not they have a genuine interest in the topic focused on by the network in question. By pairing you with a group of individuals who share the same beliefs, views and interests as you do is advantageous to members. It means that you do not have to spend hours researching a person or speaking to them just to learn what they are or are not interested in. Therefore, this enables you to jump right in and start making friends, almost as soon as you are granted access to the site that you have chosen. This service gives the social networking websites a great edge over other websites.
CONTINUOUS: ONE-WORD ESSAY
Pollution is an issue of concern in the modern world that we live in today. There are many types of pollution, namely air, water and noise. Pollution in our environment will undoubtedly affect our quality of life. Our naturally beautiful world becoming ugly because it is suffering from the effects of environmental pollution. Pollution can also cause various health problems and other negative effects.
Air pollution is caused by the emission of toxic gases from vehicles, factories and open burning. Nowadays, there are more and more vehicles on the road as society gets more affluent. More and more people strive to have a better quality of life by having the convenience of driving to their destinations instead of taking public transportation. Automobiles provides transport to millions people around the world to enable them to travel to their workplace, school and other places, therefore, the air around us is getting more polluted by the carbon dioxide that is emitted. Carbon monoxide is another type of gas which harmful to the environment as it can cause the reduction of oxygen in the bloodstream.
Another example of contributor to the air pollution is the manufacturing factories. The manufacturing of products in factories to meet the growing demand of society is also causing air pollution. Factories release toxic gases to the environment. Some factories also use coal to generate heat and energy. As a result from the burning of coal, carbon dioxide is released into the environment.
Besides factories, many people are still practising open burning as a way of disposing their household wastes. Although burning our household wastes is a convenient way of getting rid of our rubbish, it is harmful to the environment as it contributes to the worsening of the air quality. As a result, air pollution causes people to suffer from health problems such as chest pain and asthma. In extreme cases, people can contract lung cancer.
Water pollution is also a problem that we are currently facing. The marine life is the first to suffer from water pollution as they depend on the nutrients in the water to survive. As a result, we are robbed of beautiful sea corals and unique species of fishes. Besides ruining our marine heritage, the disappearance of marine life will affect the livelihood of fishermen, not to mention our source of food. Water pollution is caused by harmful waster from industries, farms and sewerage systems which are dumped into our sources of water such as rivers and lakes. This irresponsible act contaminates our drinking water and can cause serious health problems and can even culminate in death.
Noise pollution is another form of pollution. Noise from heavy machinery and vehicles can cause hearing problems and in extreme cases, deafness. As there is growing number of vehicles on the road, we are exposed to noise pollution every day. The government in advanced countries encourage their citizens to take the public buses and trains by providing an affordable and efficient transportation system. This effort discourages people from driving their private vehicles and consequently reduces the number of vehicles on the road.
We must work together to reduce pollution so that the future generations can live in a healthy, unpolluted environment. As the saying goes, precaution is better than cure. Lets hands on hands together by recycle and conserve the world for the better future.